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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________
Form 10-K
_______________
(Mark One)
   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
Or
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission File Number: 001-38993
HEALTH CATALYST, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________
Delaware
 
45-3337483
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3165 Millrock Drive #400
Salt Lake City, UT 84121
(801) 708-6800
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
_______________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
HCAT
 
The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to be file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated Filer
Emerging growth company
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
As of June 30, 2019, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the registrant's common stock was not listed on a domestic exchange or over-the-counter market. The registrant's common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 25, 2019.
As of February 24, 2020, the Registrant had 37,256,504 shares of common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III incorporates information by reference from the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in connection with the Registrant’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
_______________




HEALTH CATALYST, INC.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Table of Contents
 
 
Page
 
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, “we,” “our,” “us,” “Health Catalyst,” and the “Company” refer to Health Catalyst, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.

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PART I
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. All statements other than statements of historical facts are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of these provisions, including those relating to future events or our future financial performance and financial guidance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “project,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “intend” or “continue,” the negative of terms like these or other comparable terminology, and other words or terms of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance. These statements are only predictions. All forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Any or all of our forward-looking statements in this document may turn out to be wrong. Actual events or results may differ materially. Our forward-looking statements can be affected by inaccurate assumptions we might make or by known or unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. We discuss many of these risks, uncertainties and other factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in greater detail under the heading “Item 1A—Risk Factors.” We caution investors that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties.
Item 1. Business
Overview
We are a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations. Our Solution comprises a cloud-based data platform, analytics software, and professional services expertise. Our customers, which are primarily healthcare providers, use our Solution to manage their data, derive analytical insights to operate their organizations, and produce measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. We envision a future where all healthcare decisions are data informed.
The Health Catalyst Way
Our Mission
Our mission is to be the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. We fulfill our mission through a confluence of the following elements:
Data Platform: integrate data in a flexible, open, and scalable platform to power healthcare’s digital transformation;
Analytics Applications: deliver insights on how to measurably improve through the use of analytics applications;
Services Expertise: enable data-informed improvement by providing analytical, clinical, financial, and operational experts; and
Engagement: attract, develop, and retain world-class team members by being a best place to work.
The Health Catalyst Flywheel
We accomplish our mission with each of our customers by following a process we call the Health Catalyst Flywheel or the Flywheel. This process includes delivering on the three components of our Solution: data platform, analytics applications, and services expertise, which together drive measurable improvements. At the center of the Flywheel is the engagement of our team members. Team member engagement is foundational to everything we do and is the #1 priority of our CEO and broader leadership team. When team members feel connected to our mission and are listened to, cared for, and respected at an extraordinary level, they produce outstanding work, which enables our customers to measurably improve. As customers realize improvements, their trust in Health Catalyst builds, their engagement in our shared work increases, and they choose to renew and expand their relationship with us, while also referring Health Catalyst to key decision-makers at other potential customers. Customer renewal, expansion, and referral produce growing, scalable, and predictable financial performance.

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The virtuous cycle described above creates momentum for our business and is encapsulated in the following diagram:
https://cdn.kscope.io/9cfe04fdce09c2be2549685f8a9faa16-hcatflywheel.jpg
Given the central importance of team member engagement to our company’s long-term success, we have been purposeful in defining and emphasizing operating principles and cultural attributes that reinforce the commitment to our mission and to team member engagement. We consistently focus on our operating principles and cultural attributes, as well as our mission and Flywheel (collectively, the Health Catalyst Way), which we review in all new hire orientations, company-wide meetings, and board of directors’ meetings. Furthermore, we regularly measure our team member engagement and adjust our practices based on team member feedback. We have demonstrated an elite, consistent level of team member engagement over time as demonstrated by a 95th to 99th percentile ranking by Gallup.
We will continue to emphasize the Health Catalyst Way, including our operating principles and cultural attributes, which we believe will be central to our long-term success.
Our Operating Principles
The principles that govern our daily interactions include:
Improvement
We are deeply committed to enabling our customers to achieve and sustain measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements
We nurture deep, long-term customer partnerships because achieving and sustaining improvement is a transformational journey (not a quick trip)

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We pragmatically balance the vision, priority, and pace of innovation for data and analytics technology. We prioritize innovations that accelerate improvement
We attract, develop, and retain experts who know best practices in their domain, leverage analytics for insight, and accelerate adoption for sustained improvement
Ownership
We are accountable, as owners, to enable our customers’ measurable improvements
We make decisions that balance and optimize the interests of our teammates, customers, patients, and owners
We avoid an entitlement mentality and are good stewards of our assets
We don’t micro-manage and we encourage autonomy while also supporting scalable consistency
Respect
We recognize the immeasurable value of every individual
We listen carefully to one another and learn from each of our colleagues
We care deeply about our colleagues, including teammates, customers, patients, and owners
We benefit from one another’s diverse backgrounds and experiences
Transparency
We courageously tell the truth and we face the truth
We are the same company, culture, and people in all settings
We treat confidential information appropriately, and we protect the private data of our customers’ patients
We recommend the best solutions for our customers, whether or not those solutions come from Health Catalyst
Our Cultural Attributes
The attributes we prioritize in hiring, retention, and promotion include:
Continuous Learner
I can learn from anyone
I love to learn, and I am a lifelong student
I recognize my mistakes and correct them quickly; I fail fast
I am open to and respond favorably to feedback and coaching
I value my autonomy and use it to gain new knowledge and skills
I recognize that diversity of perspectives leads to better decisions
I am self-aware and seek improvement, personally and professionally
I watch, listen, and learn from others; thank them for their teachings; and apply the teachings to the mastery of my profession

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Hard Working
I have a deep commitment to massive healthcare improvement
I stick to the task until the job is completed, then take on new work
I lead a balanced, healthy life that enables me to sustain my pace
I am willing to contribute more than my fair share to a project
I make personal sacrifices, as needed, to get the work done
I recognize that not every part of my job will be fun
Humble
I listen first
I assume positive intent
I ask for help when I need it
I serve others without looking for recognition
I am secure in my own abilities (quiet self-confidence)
I seek to improve myself before trying to improve others
I am excited when others succeed and I offer sincere praise
I often acknowledge others for their contributions to my success
I frequently express gratitude and appreciation to those around me
World-Class
I strive to be the best in the world at what I do by continuously learning
I recognize the importance of excellence in pursuit of our mission
I am well informed about events and trends in healthcare, data, and analytics
I actively contribute to the company’s pursuit of excellence - in the data and analytics technology we build, in the domain expertise we provide, and in the functions that support this important work
Business Overview
Healthcare organizations operate in an environment that is characterized by waste, changing economics, and data complexity. Organizations that leverage analytics to make data-informed decisions will be better positioned to succeed in this environment. Our customers, which are primarily healthcare providers, use our Solution to manage their data, derive analytical insights to operate their organizations, and produce measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements.
The core elements of our Solution include:
Data platform. DOS is a healthcare-specific, cloud-based, open, flexible, and scalable data platform that provides customers a single comprehensive environment to integrate and organize data from their disparate software systems. It has been built with modern technology and is deeply embedded with healthcare domain knowledge, enabling a broad range of analytics.

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DOS has amassed one of the largest and most comprehensive data assets of its kind, which enables us to deliver differentiated insights to our customers.
Analytics applications. Our analytics applications build on top of our data platform and are designed to analyze the most common problems our customers face. These analytics applications allow our customers to pinpoint opportunities for measurable improvement across their entire enterprise and are employed by a broad range of users from healthcare executives to front-line clinicians providing care. We developed this suite of foundational and domain-specific software analytics applications over the last few years based on thoughtful measurement of the most critical analytics needs faced by our customers. The majority of our foundational and domain-specific software applications became generally available for deployment in 2018, with more to be released in the coming years. Our software analytics applications are further enhanced by a broad range of analytics accelerators, which are pre-built, configurable data models with customizable visualizations that can be tailored to specific customer needs.
Services expertise. Our world-class team consists of both analytics experts, such as data analysts, data engineers, and data scientists, and domain experts, such as healthcare administrators, physicians, and nurses. Our services are comprised of data & analytics services, domain expertise services, outsourcing services, and implementation services. Our services team members leverage our technology to help our customers shorten time-to-value and achieve sustainable measurable improvements. Examples of the services expertise we provide include opportunity analysis and prioritization, data governance, data modeling and analysis, quality and process improvement strategy, cost accounting, data abstraction, and population health strategies. Our approach to integrate data, analytics, and expertise into a holistic Solution is differentiated and has been recognized as among the best in the industry by multiple third parties, including KLAS, Chilmark Research, and Black Book. Our customers achieve sustainable measurable improvements through our Solution.
Since 2015, we have generated approximately 1,200 documented, customer-verified improvements across clinical, financial, and operational domains. In addition to the positive ROI of customers utilizing our Solution versus a costly homegrown solution, each of these documented improvements is highly valuable to our customers, enabling them to realize substantial clinical improvements, financial savings, or operational efficiencies. As we deliver measurable improvements, trust builds, and our customers engage with us more broadly and refer new business. This is evidenced by a continued increase in documented improvements achieved by our customers over time. Customers who have recently contracted with us have already started achieving measurable improvements, while longer-standing customers have seen the number of annual improvements meaningfully grow. For the year ended December 31, 2019, customers who contracted with us in 2017 and 2018 experienced approximately 6 improvements on average, customers who contracted with us in 2015 and 2016 experienced approximately 11 improvements on average, and customers who contracted with us prior to 2015 experienced approximately 25 improvements on average.
We serve the majority of our customers through a subscription-based contract model. As of December 31, 2019, we served 130 customers, including 65 customers with a DOS subscription contract. The majority of our customers not on a DOS subscription contract are interoperability subscription customers resulting from our 2018 acquisition of Medicity. Our customers include academic medical centers, integrated delivery networks, community hospitals, large physician practices, ACOs, health information exchanges, health insurers, and other risk-bearing entities. Example customers include Acuitas Health, Allina Health, AlohaCare, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Community Health Network, Partners HealthCare, UnityPoint Health, and UPMC.
We currently employ more than 900 team members including over 250 analytics experts and over 70 domain experts. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, our total revenue was $154.9 million, $112.6 million, and $73.1 million, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we incurred net losses of $60.1 million, $62.0 million, and $47.0 million, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, our Adjusted EBITDA was $(27.4) million, $(38.1) million, and $(35.4) million, respectively. See “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data - Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for more information about Adjusted EBITDA, including the limitations of such measure and a reconciliation to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP.
Our Strengths
Our operational and financial success is based on the following key strengths:
Healthcare-specific, flexible, open, and scalable data platform. DOS was purpose-built to handle healthcare-specific data management and analytics use cases, including the ingestion of disparate healthcare data sources. By linking healthcare-specific vocabularies and rules with a flexible and adaptable framework, we enable faster and more repeatable analytics. As an open platform, we support the development of analytics and applications on top of DOS, which accelerates the adoption and integration of our

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platform by our customers. The majority of analytics that are run on top of DOS are client-generated as opposed to outputs of our applications. The scalable, cloud-based infrastructure enables quicker product iteration and deployment.
Integrated and comprehensive nature of our Solution creates measurable improvements. Through the delivery of our comprehensive and integrated Solution of data, analytics, and services expertise, we enable measurable improvements for our customers. Since 2015, our Solution has generated approximately 1,200 documented, customer-verified improvements across clinical, financial, and operational domains. Over this period, total improvements have grown at a 110% CAGR while the number of annual improvements per customer has increased meaningfully as customers renew and expand the use of our Solution.
Attractive operating model. We have an attractive operating model due to the recurring nature of our revenue and the scalability of our data platform and analytics applications. Our recurring revenue subscription model provides a high degree of revenue visibility. The open and flexible nature of DOS makes it highly scalable, which allows us to deliver additional applications on top of DOS with limited incremental costs. We expect the benefits of our operating model and cost structure to generate operating leverage in our business.
Unique and differentiated culture focused on team member engagement. Our leadership team’s commitment to the team member is central to our long-term success. Our commitment to building and maintaining a culture where team members are highly engaged in our mission directly benefits not only team members, but also customers and other stakeholders.
The team member experience is the #1 priority of our CEO and other members of our leadership team. On a daily basis, our leadership focuses on the team member experience, by listening carefully to team member feedback and making changes based on this feedback, by erring in favor of the team member, and by working as an advocate for each team member. This focus enables team members to become highly engaged in fulfilling our mission to be the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed improvement in healthcare.
This deep team member engagement in our mission leads team members to build world-class data and analytics technology and to provide industry-leading expertise. The care that the leadership team shows to team members becomes the same care that team members show to our customers, and through this care and commitment, our customers experience accelerating and measurable improvement, which leads them to renew, expand, and refer.
By focusing on the team member experience, our customers realize greater improvements, which leads to a high-growth, predictable business model.
Recognized industry leader by multiple third parties. The strength of our Solution has been recognized by multiple third-parties as among the best in the industry. These include KLAS Overall Customer Satisfaction Scores that are frequently among the highest in the peer group, as well as Chilmark Research and Black Book. We recognized early on that healthcare organizations need purpose-built technology products and services to support data-driven insights, and have spent more than a decade building and commercializing our healthcare-specific Solution. We invested meaningful time and resources over the last decade to build a comprehensive and differentiated set of products and services for our customers, which is not easily replicated by other healthcare and/or technology companies. Our customers benefit from our technology innovation and expertise which allows them to avoid the significant time, financial resources, and technical proficiency they would need to invest to build related capabilities in-house. Similarly, the overall complexity and dynamic nature of healthcare require purpose-built products and services to address the challenges our customers face, preventing traditional technology companies from easily leveraging and deploying existing platforms.
Tenured management team with healthcare technology experience. Health Catalyst is led by a team of healthcare and data veterans with many years of combined experience leading digital transformation at health systems, such as Intermountain Healthcare and Northwestern University. Our founders and executives collaborated for nearly a decade to pioneer and develop a new data warehousing architecture that resolves many of the problems encountered using traditional data warehousing methodologies. The unique combination of talent and experience across healthcare and technology, as well as our management team’s commitment to the Health Catalyst Way, underpin everything we do.
Our Growth Strategies
Our growth strategies reflect our mission to be the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Our focus on multiple channels, as well as our collaborative company culture, results in high levels of sustainable growth. Our strategic levers to drive growth include:

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Grow our overall customer base. We have a substantial opportunity to continue growing our customer base through our active sales and marketing strategy and significant word-of-mouth references. We currently estimate our total core addressable market to include more than 1,200 healthcare organizations, including health systems and risk-bearing entities. We believe there is ample room to win new business and deepen market penetration in our core market. Further, healthcare providers outside of the United States face similar challenges to those in the United States and can implement our Solution to address them. We plan to opportunistically pursue international markets by expanding our business in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Southeast Asia.
Expand within our current customer base. We intend to deepen and expand the relationships we have with our existing customer base. Our relationship with a new customer oftentimes starts through the use of targeted analytics applications and services to pinpoint and achieve a single measurable clinical, financial, or operational improvement. As we deliver measurable improvements, trust builds, and our customers engage with us more broadly and purchase additional applications and services. We have achieved continued DOS Subscription customer growth in part due to strong customer retention and customer referrals. This is evidenced by our positive Dollar-based Retention Rates of 109%, 107%, and 108% for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. This is also evidenced by a continued increase in documented improvements achieved by our customers over time. Recent customers have already started achieving measurable improvements, while customers who began working with us in 2017 and 2018 on average experienced approximately 6 improvements over the 12 months ended December 31, 2019, customers who began working with us in 2015 and 2016 on average experienced approximately 11 improvements over the 12 months ended December 31, 2019, and customers who began working with us before 2015 on average experienced approximately 25 improvements over the 12 months ended December 31, 2019. We will continue to invest in helping customers identify additional uses for our Solution, ensuring they achieve measurable improvements throughout our relationship with them.
Add new analytics applications and services offerings. The expansion of our Solution and enhancement of our applications library will accelerate as we deepen our customer relationships and add to our dataset. Because our platform is open and we partner with our customers, we are able to identify new opportunities for further improvements and leverage that insight with other customers across our core market to develop new analytics applications and services offerings. We have used this process to build eight new software applications over the past few years, and we will continue to invest in product development, particularly at the analytics applications layer of our technology stack.
Grow our addressable market through additional healthcare business segment adjacencies. We believe there are significant applications for our Solution outside of our core market, as evidenced by our recent expansion into the life sciences market. Other business segment adjacencies include serving the employer space and additional types of providers and risk-bearing entities. While we believe there are significant opportunities in our core market, these business segment agencies have the potential to significantly grow our addressable market and business.
Selectively pursue acquisitions and partnerships. We plan to continue identifying and evaluating opportunities where we can leverage our platform to scale and consolidate both data assets and best-of-breed applications. We believe that competing point solutions vendors will have difficulty in growing their offerings into sustainable businesses, which we believe translates into a robust mergers and acquisitions pipeline for us. We have a track record of identifying and integrating new and complementary capabilities, including our acquisitions of Healthcare Data Works, Medicity, and Able Health. Moreover, we believe the companies we partner with and acquire choose us because of our collaborative, best-in-class culture which we view as a differentiating factor in sourcing acquisitions and partnerships.

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Our Solution
Our Solution empowers our customers to run a data-informed business. Our healthcare-specific, open, flexible, and scalable data platform, advanced analytics applications, and services expertise guide our customers to greater levels of digital maturity, enabling clinical, financial, and operational improvements. The diagram below illustrates the three layers of our comprehensive Solution.
https://cdn.kscope.io/9cfe04fdce09c2be2549685f8a9faa16-hcatsolution.jpg
Data Platform - the Data Operating System (DOS)
DOS is a healthcare-specific, open, flexible, and scalable data platform that allows customers to integrate and organize their disparate data sources to enable analytics. It serves as a digital backbone, allowing customers to easily extract data from transactional source systems, combine disparate data sets into a unified source of truth and query the dataset directly. DOS is a cloud-based technology that we primarily provide through Microsoft Azure and through our private data center. In order to enable more advanced feature development and functionality, we are in the process of migrating our customers hosted in our private data center, and a few remaining on-premise customers, to Microsoft Azure.
DOS was uniquely designed and purpose-built to handle the complex, ever-evolving nature of healthcare-specific data. This includes healthcare-specific terminology, data governance, and meta-data management. By creating healthcare-specific data models to organize industry-specific data, we enable faster and more repeatable analytics and insights. We have developed the capabilities to turn these insights into actions by connecting our analytics into the workflow systems, such as an EHR.
Differentiating attributes of our DOS include:
Data warehouse. We believe our innovative late-binding architecture has a proven track record of agility and adaptability to new rules, vocabularies, and data content. Our open and flexible platform enables database-level querying and custom analytics use-cases.
Source connectors. Our platform is designed to quickly ingest data from the numerous information systems and siloed data sources our customers possess. We have prebuilt connectors to the most common transactional software systems used by healthcare organizations. The DOS data management console enables customers to manage robust ETL processes and scheduling.
Cloud-based. Modern cloud-based architecture is secure and scalable. Being cloud-based enables quicker product iteration and innovation.
Reusable data logic. Registries, value sets, and other data logic sit on top of the raw data and can be accessed, reused, and updated through open APIs, enabling customer and third-party application development. We update hundreds of registries,

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value sets, and measure logic regularly. This reusable, healthcare data content enables customers to achieve analytic value more quickly than leveraging homegrown or cross-industry products and services.
Machine learning. Embedded within DOS are machine learning algorithms that our customers can easily leverage for predictive analytics. Customers can also build their own machine learning data pipelines within DOS.
Terminology services. By standardizing the complex language used to code entries in various health records and clinical systems, DOS facilitates decision support, consistent reporting, and analytics and interoperability.
Closed-loop EHR integration. Bridges the gap between insight and action by reducing data lag, interjecting knowledge at the point of decision-making, including back into the workflow of source systems, such as an EHR.
Text processing. Enables the extraction of additional data currently trapped in various unstructured text blocks. The ability to gather insight from clinical notes remains an area of untapped healthcare intelligence with tremendous potential.
Real-time streaming and interoperability. Near or real-time data streaming from the source all the way to the expression of that data through DOS, supporting both transaction-level exchange of data and analytic processing.
Big data. Ability to access, organize, and analyze massive and unique, structured and unstructured, data sets allows us to drive differentiated analytic insights for our customers.
Analytics Applications
We have thoughtfully developed several scalable analytics applications that allow us to deliver the right data to the right place at the right time. Combining this pioneering technique with our data asset of more than one hundred million patient records, our customers systematically uncover opportunities for actionable interventions. We have organized our analytics applications into two categories: foundational software applications and domain-specific software applications. In addition, we have created a suite of analytics accelerators, which provide customers with a starting point to leverage for tailored insights.
Foundational Software Applications
Registry and Measures Authoring (Population Builder). Enables non-SQL writers like clinicians and administrators to dynamically author, manage, view, and publish pre-built and custom population ruleset definitions using an elegant drag-and-drop interface. Rulesets can be published as a registry, leveraged across the DOS analytics platform and augmented with summary metrics using our tools. These registries can be used for internal quality improvement and research efforts or for reporting to external organizational registries.
Benchmarking (Touchstone). Uses artificial intelligence to proactively identify where a customer is performing relative to benchmark sets composed of proprietary and publicly-available data; subsequently recommends and prioritizes opportunities for improvement.
Dashboards and Reporting (Leading Wisely). Enables users to quickly and easily add clinical, financial, and operational measures in an executive dashboard format. Measures are trended over time and updated on a near real-time basis from DOS. Users can customize information, share it with others, and set their own alerts and notifications. As a result, executives and their teams are empowered to take control of the data deluge to plan, prioritize improvement projects, create alignment among groups, strategize the best products and services, and communicate decisions more effectively.
Domain-Specific Software Applications
Activity-Based Costing (CORUS). Activity-based costing software application that leverages clinical and operational data from DOS to calculate a true cost of clinical processes and patients on the most granular level. Enables CFOs, physicians, service line leaders, and clinical and financial analysts to understand the true cost of providing care and relate those costs to patient outcomes.
Patient Safety (Patient Safety Monitor). Trigger-based surveillance system enabled by DOS. This application monitors patient-level data and applies machine learning algorithms to predict whether a patient is currently at risk for a safety event so that clinicians can intervene to prevent harm events.

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Care Management. Patient-centric population health service that utilizes data integration, patient stratification and intake, care coordination, patient engagement, and performance measurement to optimize care delivery for high-risk patients.
Population Health Foundations. Product suite designed to help health systems manage risk-based contracts and bundled payment models and allow providers to tailor patient care based upon population metrics and benchmarks.
Quality and Regulatory Measures. Foundational product for integrating hundreds of measures across financial, regulatory, and quality departments and reporting those measures to third-party entities like CMS. Enables proactive measures surveillance to enhance outcomes and facilitates monitoring behaviors, interventions, and activities needed to influence, manage, or change outcomes. The acquisition of Able Health will further strengthen our existing Quality and Regulatory Measures capabilities.
Analytics Accelerators
To further enhance our analytics applications we have also developed a library of tailored analytics accelerators. Analytics accelerators are pre-built data models and customizable visualizations that leverage the broad set of integrated data stored within our DOS platform for a specific analytic use-case. Customers who utilize our analytics accelerators achieve a much faster time-to-value compared to building an analytic model from the ground up. Our customers frequently rely on our analytics expertise to customize our analytics accelerators, as well as our domain expertise in order to successfully leverage our analytics accelerators to drive data-informed improvement. The breadth of our analytics accelerators facilitates analytic insights across clinical, financial, and operational use-cases. Our suite of more than 30 analytics accelerators provides highly-specific clinical, financial, and operational insights. Examples of these accelerators include:
Clinical: Sepsis, Readmissions, Heart Failure, Joint Replacement, CLABSI, and COPD;
Financial: Payment Model Analyzer, Financial Management, Revenue Cycle, and Hierarchical Condition Categories; and
Operational: Supply Chain, Patient Flow, Surgical Services, Labor Management, and Practice Management.
Services Expertise
We provide a range of high-value-add professional services to help our customers implement and maximize the value of our Solution. Our professional services experts combine industry-leading talent across multiple domain areas with a deep working knowledge of our technology to help our customers achieve a faster time-to-value and drive more meaningful and sustainable measurable improvements. Our team is comprised of over 250 analytics experts and over 70 domain experts, including several nationally-recognized healthcare and analytics leaders.
Our domain experts provide services across a range of specialties, including:
Data and Analytics services expertise:
Data Engineering Services: Help customers ingest data sources and provide consulting around DOS best practice and strategy around leveraging new DOS features.
Analytic Engineer Services: Partner with clients to generate meaningful insights produced from Health Catalyst technology that lead improvement efforts. Guides best practice and training.
Implementation Services: Implement and configure analytics applications.
Data Science Services: Work with client teams to apply scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to ask and answer questions using data.  In addition, build software tools to enable self-service capabilities for customers.
Analytics Strategy Services: Provide agile development workshops, continued data architecture and Extract Transform Load support, documentation and training, measure reporting efficiency, and prioritization and staff augmentation.
Data Governance Services: Offer advisory services related to leveraging customers’ unique, strategic data assets, managing data access and security, and establishing cross-functional governance structures.

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Clinical, Financial, and Operational services expertise:
Quality and Process Improvement Strategy: Organizational readiness assessments and opportunity analysis. Clinical pathways, best practices, and protocol implementation. Lean methodology and clinical variation reduction recommendations.
Patient Safety Services: Transition from voluntary under-reporting to proactive prevention using data-driven triggers.
Cost Accounting Services: Expert analysis of fine-grain activity-based costing methods and cost-saving improvement opportunities.
Population Health and Value-Based Care Services: Organizational transformation services to enhance abilities to take on cost risk for patient populations.
Abstraction Data Submission Services: Support in collecting quality and regulatory information and submitting it to various associations.
Health Catalyst University - Educational Services: Hands-on courses, programs, and customizable training opportunities to provide our customers with knowledge, practical skills, and take-home tools needed to drive improvement efforts.
Our Customers
Our customers comprise academic medical centers, integrated delivery networks, community hospitals, large physician practices, ACOs, health information exchanges, health insurers, and other risk-bearing entities. Today, we help executives, administrators, clinicians, and technicians in hundreds of hospitals and thousands of clinics.
We work closely in collaboration with many key stakeholders including chief executive officers, chief financial officers, chief information officers, chief technology officers, population health teams, and IT teams among others. From our perspective, data and analytics have transitioned from a discussion with members of the IT department to an enterprise-wide, strategic discussion with the C-suite and other leadership members. Certain customers have participated as investors in our prior sales of redeemable convertible preferred stock, including Partners Healthcare and UPMC.
One customer represented 12% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017. No other customer represented more than 10% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017.
Team Members and Culture
We currently employ more than 900 team members. We believe that we have good relationships with our team members. None of our team members are subject to collective bargaining agreements or are represented by a union.
Our corporate culture is a critical component of our success. We believe that building and maintaining a remarkable culture benefits our customers and team members. Our culture promotes an environment where team members trust each other, strive to continually learn, are motivated to lead hard-working yet balanced lives, make decisions with integrity and humility in mind, communicate openly and honestly, embrace teamwork and collaboration, and enjoy their days at work.
Our team members, who uphold our values and live our mission every day, are at the forefront of cultivating and spreading this culture across the healthcare organizations that we serve. This continuous interaction across the entire Health Catalyst community creates a virtuous cycle that further reinforces our culture and fuels our growth.
Our team member satisfaction scores, as measured by Gallup, have consistently ranked in the 95th to 99th percentile and our KLAS Overall Customer Satisfaction Score has regularly outpaced the segment average. Moreover, we have received numerous awards and recognition for our culture and service to our customers. In total, we have been recognized over 50 times as a “best place to work” by Glassdoor, Gallup, Inc., and Modern Healthcare, among others. Additionally, we have received multiple awards for customer satisfaction and excellence from KLAS, Chilmark Research, and Black Book. We believe that these honors demonstrate the loyalty of our team members and our customers and that our culture is driving the behaviors that will help fuel our future growth.

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Sales and Marketing
We market and sell our services to healthcare organizations primarily in the United States, but opportunistically in other geographies, including Canada, the United Kingdom, and Southeast Asia. Our dedicated sales team identifies healthcare organizations that would benefit from our Solution. Our sales team works closely with our subject matter experts to foster long-term relationships with our customers’ and sales prospects’ leadership teams. In the third quarter of each year, we hold the Healthcare Analytics Summit (HAS), an event showcasing data-informed improvement in healthcare.
Research and Development
Our ability to compete depends in large part on our continuous commitment to research and development and our ability to rapidly introduce new applications, technologies, features, and functionality. Our research and development organization is responsible for the design, development, and testing of our data platform and analytics applications. Based on customer feedback and needs, we focus our efforts on developing new products, functionality, applications, and core technologies and further enhancing the usability, functionality, reliability, performance, and flexibility of our data platform and existing analytics applications.
Research and development expenses were $46.3 million, $38.6 million, and $28.5 million for our years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, and copyright laws in the United States as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our trade secrets, including proprietary technology, databases, and our brand.
As of December 31, 2019, we had nine issued U.S. patents, three issued Canadian patents, one issued Great Britain patent, and one issued European patent, which expire between 2026 and 2037, and five patent applications pending in the United States and one patent application pending in Canada. These patents and patent applications seek to protect proprietary inventions relevant to our business. We intend to pursue additional patent protection to the extent we believe it would be beneficial to our business and cost-effective.
We have registered “Health Catalyst” and our flame design logo as trademarks in the United States and certain other jurisdictions. We also have filed other trademark applications that are meaningful to our business in the United States and certain other jurisdictions and will pursue additional trademark registrations to the extent we believe it would be beneficial and cost-effective.
We are the registered holder of a variety of domain names that include “Health Catalyst” and similar variations.
We maintain our intellectual property and confidential business information in a number of ways. For instance, we have a policy of requiring all employees and consultants to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of an employment or consulting relationship with us. Our employee agreements also require relevant employees to assign to us all rights to any inventions made or conceived during their employment with us in accordance with applicable law. In addition, we have a policy of requiring individuals and entities with which we discuss potential business relationships to sign non-disclosure agreements. Lastly, our agreements with customers include confidentiality and non-disclosure provisions.
Competition
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, intense competition from a number of companies. Our primary competitors are industry-agnostic analytics companies, EHR companies, point solution vendors, as well as healthcare organizations that perform their own analytics. Industry-agnostic analytics companies include IBM, Tableau, and Qlik. EHR companies include Cerner Systems and Epic Systems. Point solution companies include Optum Analytics, Premier, Strata Decision Technology, and Intersystems.
The principal competitive factors in our industry include:
level of customer satisfaction;
ease of deployment and use of solutions and applications;
breadth and depth of solution and application functionality;

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access to, and ability to glean insights from, large data sets;
brand awareness and reputation;
modern and adaptive technology platform;
capability for customization, configurability, integration, security, scalability, and reliability of applications;
total cost of ownership;
ability to innovate and respond to customer needs rapidly;
size of customer base and level of user adoption;
regulatory compliance verification and functionality;
domain expertise with respect to healthcare; and
ability to integrate with legacy enterprise infrastructures and third-party applications.
We believe that we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors. However, many of our competitors and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technological, and other resources and name recognition than we do and more established distribution networks and relationships with healthcare providers. As a result, many of these companies may respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and standards and changes in customer requirements. These companies may be able to invest more resources in research and development, strategic acquisitions, sales and marketing, patent prosecution, litigation, and financing capital equipment acquisitions for their customers.
Government Regulation
Our business is subject to extensive, complex, and rapidly changing federal and state laws and regulations. Various federal and state agencies have discretion to issue regulations and interpret and enforce healthcare laws. While we believe we comply in all material respects with applicable healthcare laws and regulations, these regulations can vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interpretation of existing laws and regulations may change periodically. Federal and state legislatures also may enact various legislative proposals that could materially impact certain aspects of our business. The following are summaries of key federal and state laws and regulations that impact our operations:
Government Regulation of Health Information
Privacy and Security Laws and Regulations. HIPAA contains substantial restrictions and requirements with respect to the use and disclosure of individuals’ PHI. These are embodied in the implementing regulations’ privacy standards (Privacy Rule) and security standards (Security Rule). The Privacy and Security Rules apply directly to covered entities, including certain healthcare providers who engage in HIPAA-defined standard electronic transactions, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses, and business associates who perform certain services involving PHI on their behalf. The HIPAA Privacy Rule prohibits a covered entity or business associate from using or disclosing an individual’s PHI unless the use or disclosure is authorized by the individual or is specifically required or permitted under the Privacy Rule. The Privacy Rule imposes a complex set of requirements on covered entities and business associates to comply with these standards. The Security Rule requires covered entities and business associates to establish administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of electronic PHI maintained or transmitted by them or by others on their behalf. In addition, HIPAA regulations in some cases require covered entities and business associates to provide notice in the event of an unauthorized disclosure of PHI.
Since we provide services that require us to use and disclose protected health information on behalf of our covered entity customers, we are also a business associate. The Privacy Rule requires us to enter into business associate agreements with our customers. Such agreements must, among other things, provide adequate written assurances:
as to how we will use and disclose PHI;
that we will enter into similar agreements with our agents and subcontractors that have access to the information;

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that we will report security incidents and other inappropriate uses or disclosures of PHI; and
that we will assist the covered entity with certain of its duties under the Privacy Rule.
In addition, we are also required to maintain business associate agreements (BAAs), which contain similar provisions, with our subcontractors that access or otherwise process PHI on our behalf.
State Laws. In addition to the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules, most states have enacted patient confidentiality laws that protect against the disclosure of confidential medical information, including privacy safeguards, and security standards. Many states have also adopted data security breach notification requirements. Such state laws, if more stringent than HIPAA requirements, are not preempted by the federal requirements, and we must comply with them.
Consumer Protection Laws. Federal and state consumer protection laws are being applied increasingly by the FTC, Federal Communications Commission and states’ attorneys general to regulate the collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal or patient information, through websites or otherwise, and to regulate the presentation of website content and to regulate direct marketing, including telemarketing and telephonic communication. Courts may also adopt the standards for fair information practices promulgated by the FTC, which concern consumer notice, choice, security, and access.
Fraud, Waste, and Abuse
A number of federal and state laws, generally referred to as fraud, waste, and abuse laws, are used to prosecute healthcare providers, physicians and others that make, offer, seek, or receive referrals or payments for products or services that may be paid for through any federal or state healthcare program and in some instances any private program. Given the breadth of these laws and regulations, they are potentially applicable to our business and to the financial arrangements through which we market, sell and provide our services. These laws and regulations include:
Anti-Kickback and Anti-Self Referral Laws. There are numerous federal and state laws that govern patient referrals, physician financial relationships, and inducements to healthcare providers and patients. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute makes it illegal for any person, including a prescription drug manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf) to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer, or pay any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, in exchange for, or intended to induce or reward, including arranging for or recommending, either the referral of an individual, or the purchase, lease, order, prescription, or recommendation of any good, facility, item or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid program. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act (see below) or federal civil money penalties statute. There are several limited statutory exceptions and regulatory exclusions (known as safe harbors) that may protect some arrangements from enforcement penalties. These exceptions and safe harbors have very limited application and must be strictly adhered to in order to obtain protection thereunder. Many states have similar anti-kickback laws, some of which are not limited to items or services for which payment is made by government healthcare programs. In addition, the federal anti-referral law (the Stark Law) is very complex in its application, and prohibits physicians (and certain other healthcare professionals) from making a referral for a designated health service to a provider in which the referring healthcare professional (or spouse or any immediate family member) has a financial or ownership interest, unless an enumerated exception applies. The Stark Law also prohibits the billing for services rendered resulting from an impermissible referral. Many states also have similar anti-referral laws that are not necessarily limited to items or services for which payment is made by a federal healthcare program, and may include patient disclosure requirements.
False Claims Laws. There are numerous federal and state laws that prohibit submission of false information or the failure to disclose information in connection with the submission and payment of physician claims for reimbursement.
The federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalties laws, such as the federal False Claims Act, impose criminal and civil penalties and authorizes civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for, among other things: knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to a federal government healthcare program, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent; making, using or causing to be made or used, a false statement or record material to payment of a false or fraudulent claim or obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the federal government; or knowingly concealing or knowingly and improperly avoiding or decreasing an obligation to pay money to the federal government. The government may deem entities to have “caused” the submission of false or fraudulent claims by, for example, providing inaccurate billing or coding information to our customers.

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HIPAA also contains a provision that imposes criminal and civil liability for knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program (including private payors) or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items, or services. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. Similarly, the federal false statements statute prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing, or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items, or services.
Violations of federal and state fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including significant penalties, fines, disgorgement, additional reporting requirements and oversight under a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of noncompliance with these laws, imprisonment and/or exclusion or suspension from federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, and debarment from contracting with the U.S. government. In addition, private individuals have the ability to bring actions on behalf of the U.S. government under the federal False Claims Act as well as under the false claims laws of several states.
Corporate Practice of Medicine Laws
In many states, there are laws that prevent corporations from being licensed as practitioners and that prohibit licensed medical practitioners from practicing medicine in partnership with non-physicians, such as business corporations. Overseeing a care coordination or care management team could be alleged in some cases to involve treatment or diagnosis of patients which requires a clinic license or other state license or permission. Any determination that we are acting in the capacity of a healthcare provider and acting improperly as a healthcare provider, exercising undue influence or control over a healthcare provider or impermissibly sharing fees with a healthcare provider, may result in additional compliance requirements, expense, and liability to us, and require us to change or terminate some portions of our contractual arrangements or business.
Patient Safety Organization Certification and Other Certification Requirements
Our patient safety organization (PSO) is certified by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), an agency of HHS. We must meet certain requirements to maintain this certification. In addition, there may be other federal and state certification requirements that we may be required to meet from time to time in connection with our Solution. We cannot be certain that our Solution will continue to meet these standards. The failure to comply with these certification requirements could result in the loss of certification.
Interoperability Standards. ONC is charged under the 21st Century Cures Act with developing a Trusted Exchange Framework that establishes governance requirements for trusted health information exchange in the United States. ONC has developed the U.S. Common Data Set for Interoperability which may lay the groundwork for future data exchange requirements for trusted exchange. ONC continues to modify and refine these standards. We may incur increased software development and administrative expense and delays in delivering technology and services if we need to update our services to conform to these varying and evolving requirements. In addition, delays in interpreting these standards may result in postponement or cancellation of our clients’ decisions to purchase our services. If our services are not compliant with these evolving standards, our market position and sales could be impaired, and we may have to invest significantly in changes to our technology and services.
In February 2019, ONC and CMS proposed complementary new rules to support access, exchange, and use of EHI. The proposed rules are intended to clarify provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act regarding interoperability and “information blocking,” and, if adopted, will create significant new requirements for health care industry participants. The proposed ONC rule, if adopted, would require certain electronic health record technology to incorporate standardized application programming interfaces (APIs) to allow individuals to securely and easily access structured EHI using smartphone applications. The ONC rule would also implement provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act requiring that patients be provided with electronic access to all of their EHI (structured and/or unstructured) at no cost. Finally, the proposed ONC rule would also implement the information blocking provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act, and proposes seven “reasonable and necessary activities” that will not be considered information blocking as long as specific conditions are met. The CMS proposed rule focuses on health plans, payors, and health care providers and proposes measures to enable patients to move from health plan to health plan, provider to provider, and have both their clinical and administrative information travel with them.

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It is unclear whether or when these proposed rules, and others released simultaneously, will be adopted, in whole or in part. If adopted, the rules may benefit us in that certain EHR vendors will no longer be permitted to interfere with our attempts at integration, but the rules may also make it easier for other similar companies to enter the market, creating increased competition and reducing our market share. It is unclear at this time what the costs of compliance with the proposed rules, if adopted, would be, and what additional risks there may be to our business.
In a regulatory climate that is uncertain, our operations may be subject to direct and indirect adoption, expansion or reinterpretation of various federal and state laws and regulations. Compliance with these amended and/or future laws and regulations may require us to change our practices at an undeterminable and possibly significant initial monetary and annual expense. There could be laws and regulations applicable to our business that we have not identified or that, if changed, may apply to our business operations. Additionally, the introduction of new services may require us to comply with additional, yet undetermined, laws and regulations.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
The FDA may regulate medical or health-related software, including machine learning functionality and predictive algorithms, if such software falls within the definition of a “medical device” under the FDCA. However, the FDA exercises enforcement discretion for certain low-risk software, as described in its guidance documents for Mobile Medical Applications, General Wellness: Policy for Low Risk Devices, and Medical Device Data Systems, Medical Image Storage Devices, and Medical Image Communications Devices. In addition, the 21st Century Cures Act includes exemptions for certain medical-related software, including software used for administrative support functions at a healthcare facility, software intended for maintaining or encouraging a healthy lifestyle, EHR software, software for transferring, storing, or displaying medical device data or in vitro diagnostic data, and certain clinical decision support software. The FDA has also issued draft guidance documents to clarify how it intends to interpret and apply the exemptions under the 21st Century Cures Act.
FDA regulations govern, among other things, product development, testing, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, clearance or approval, advertising and promotion, sales and distribution, and import and export. FDA requirements with respect to devices that are determined to pose lesser risk to the public include:
registration and device listing with FDA;
the Quality System Regulation (QSR), which requires manufacturers, including third-party or contract manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation, and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of manufacturing;
labeling regulations and FDA prohibitions against the advertising and promotion of products for uncleared, unapproved off-label uses and other requirements related to advertising and promotional activities;
medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur;
corrections and removal reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA field corrections and product recalls or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FDCA that may present a risk to health; and
post-market surveillance regulations, which apply when necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device.
Non-compliance with applicable FDA requirements can result in, among other things, public warning letters, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, failure of the FDA to grant marketing approvals, withdrawal of marketing approvals, a recommendation by the FDA to disallow us from entering into government contracts and criminal prosecutions. The FDA also has the authority to request repair, replacement, or refund of the cost of any device.
Foreign Regulations
Our subsidiaries in the United Kingdom and Singapore are subject to additional regulations by the Government of the United Kingdom, as well as its subdivisions, and the Government of Singapore, respectively. These include federal and local corporation requirements, restrictions on exchange of funds, employment-related laws and qualification for tax status.

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Foreign Data Collection. The collection and use of personal health data in the EU is governed by various laws concerning privacy, data protection and data security, most notably the GDPR. The GDPR applies to any company established in the EU as well as to those outside the EU if they collect and use personal data in connection with offering goods or services to individuals in the EU or the monitoring of their behavior. The GDPR enhances data protection obligations for processors and controllers of personal data, including, for example, expanded disclosures about how personal information is to be used, limitations on retention of information, mandatory data breach notification requirements and onerous new obligations on services providers. The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the EU to other countries, including the United States. Non-compliance with the GDPR may result in monetary penalties of up to €20 million or 4% of worldwide revenue, whichever is higher. The GDPR may impose additional responsibility and liability in relation to personal data that we process and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms ensuring compliance with data protection rules. We may become subject to similar laws and regulations in other countries outside of the EU in which we do business.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and Foreign Anti-Bribery Laws. The FCPA makes it illegal for U.S. persons, including U.S. companies, and their subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, and agents, to promise, authorize or make any corrupt payment, or otherwise provide any item of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official or any foreign political party or party official to obtain or retain business. Violations of the FCPA can also result in violations of other U.S. laws, including anti-money laundering, mail and wire fraud, and conspiracy laws. There are severe penalties for violating the FCPA. In addition, the Company may also be subject to other non-U.S. anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws, such as the U.K. Bribery Act 2010.
Export Controls. Economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by OFAC prohibit or restrict transactions to or from, and dealings with specified countries, their governments, and in certain circumstances, with individuals and entities that are specially designated nationals of those countries, and other sanctioned persons, including narcotics traffickers and terrorists or terrorist organizations. Further, federal regulations impose authorization, reporting, and/or licensing requirements prior to the export of certain software that incorporates encryption technology. These requirements may apply to our Solution to the extent that our software with encryption functionality is implemented abroad or is hosted on servers in a foreign country to provide services to customers outside the United States. In addition, various countries also regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our customers’ ability to import our technology into those countries.
Corporate Information
Health Catalyst, Inc. (Health Catalyst) was incorporated under the laws of Delaware in September 2011. We were formerly known as HQC Holdings, Inc. In March 2017, we changed our name to Health Catalyst, Inc.
 Our principal executive offices are located at 3165 Millrock Drive #400, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, and our telephone number is (801) 708-6800. We completed our initial public offering of shares of our common stock, also referred to as our IPO, in July 2019, and our common stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “HCAT.” Our corporate website address is www.healthcatalyst.com.  Information contained on or accessible through our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. We will cease to be an “emerging growth company” upon the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues; (ii) the date we qualify as a large accelerated filer, with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the issuance, in any three-year period, by us of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) December 31, 2024.
Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statement, and all amendments to these filings, are available free of charge from our investor relations website (https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/financial-information/sec-filings) as soon as reasonably practicable following our filing with or furnishing to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, of any of these reports. The SEC’s website (https://www.sec.gov) contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

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Our investors and others should note that we announce material information to the public about our company, products and services, and other issues through a variety of means, including our website (https://www.healthcatalyst.com/), our investor relations website (https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/), press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls, and social media, in order to achieve broad, non-exclusionary distribution of information to the public. We encourage our investors and others to review the information we make public in these locations as such information could be deemed to be material information. Please note that this list may be updated from time to time.
The contents of any website referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are not intended to be incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following risk factors, in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section of this report titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes. If any of the events described in the following risk factors and the risks described elsewhere in this report occurs, our business, operating results and financial condition could be seriously harmed. This Annual Report on Form 10-K also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of factors that are described below and elsewhere in this report.
Risks Related to Our Business
We operate in a highly competitive industry, and if we are not able to compete effectively, our business and results of operations will be harmed.
The market for healthcare solutions is intensely competitive. We compete across various segments within the healthcare market, including with respect to data analytics and technology platforms, healthcare consulting, care management and coordination, population health management, and health information exchange. Competition in our market involves rapidly changing technologies, evolving regulatory requirements and industry expectations, frequent new product introductions, and changes in customer requirements. If we are unable to keep pace with the evolving needs of our customers and continue to develop and introduce new applications and services in a timely and efficient manner, demand for our Solution may be reduced and our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.
We face competition from industry-agnostic analytics companies and EHR companies, such as Epic Systems and Cerner. We also compete with other large, well-financed, and technologically sophisticated entities. Some of our current large competitors, such as Optum Analytics and IBM, have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, significantly greater resources than we do, and/or more established distribution networks and relationships with healthcare providers. As a result, our current and potential competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements. In addition, current and potential competitors have established, and may in the future establish, cooperative relationships with vendors of complementary products, or services to increase the availability of their products or services to the marketplace. Current or future competitors may consolidate to improve the breadth of their products, directly competing with our Solution. Accordingly, new competitors may emerge that have greater market share, larger customer bases, greater breadth and volume of data, more widely adopted proprietary technologies, broader offerings, greater marketing expertise, greater financial resources, and larger sales forces than we have, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Further, in light of these advantages, even if our Solution is more effective than the product or service offerings of our competitors, current or potential customers might select competitive products and services in lieu of purchasing our Solution. We face competition from niche vendors, who offer stand-alone products and services, and from existing enterprise vendors, including those currently focused on software products, which have information systems in place with customers in our target markets. These existing enterprise vendors may now, or in the future, offer or promise products or services with less functionality than our Solution, but offer ease of integration with existing systems and that leverage existing vendor relationships. Increased competition is likely to result in pricing pressures, which could negatively impact our sales, profitability, or market share.
Our patient engagement, population health, and care coordination services face competition from a wide variety of market participants. For example, certain health systems have developed their own population health and care coordination systems. If we fail to distinguish our offerings from the other options available to healthcare providers, the demand for and market share of those offerings may decrease.

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We may be unable to successfully execute on our growth initiatives, business strategies, or operating plans.
We are continually executing a number of growth initiatives, strategies, and operating plans designed to enhance our business. For example, we recently expanded our data analytics services into the payor and life sciences markets. We may not be able to successfully complete these growth initiatives, strategies, and operating plans and realize all of the benefits, including growth targets and cost savings, that we expect to achieve or it may be more costly to do so than we anticipate. A variety of factors could cause us not to realize some or all of the expected benefits. These factors include, among others, delays in the anticipated timing of activities related to such growth initiatives, strategies, and operating plans, increased difficulty and cost in implementing these efforts, including difficulties in complying with new regulatory requirements and the incurrence of other unexpected costs associated with operating the business. Moreover, our continued implementation of these programs may disrupt our operations and performance. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will realize these benefits. If, for any reason, the benefits we realize are less than our estimates or the implementation of these growth initiatives, strategies, and operating plans adversely affect our operations or cost more or take longer to effectuate than we expect, or if our assumptions prove inaccurate, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
If we fail to effectively manage our growth and organizational change, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
We have experienced, and may continue to experience, rapid growth and organizational change, which has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management, operational, and financial resources. In addition, if we fail to successfully integrate new team members, it could harm our culture. We must continue to maintain, and may need to enhance, our information technology infrastructure and financial and accounting systems and controls, as well as manage expanded operations in geographically distributed locations, which will place additional demands on our resources and operations. We also must attract, train, and retain a significant number of qualified sales and marketing personnel, professional services personnel, software engineers, technical personnel, service offering personnel, and management personnel. This will require us to invest in and commit significant financial, operational, and management resources to grow and change in these areas without undermining the corporate culture that has been critical to our growth so far. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the realization of these benefits is delayed, our results of operations may be adversely affected. If we fail to provide effective customer training on our Solution and high-quality customer support, our business and reputation could suffer. Failure to manage our growth effectively could lead us to over-invest or under-invest in technology and operations; result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, systems, or controls; give rise to operational mistakes, losses, or loss of productivity or business opportunities; reduce customer or user satisfaction; limit our ability to respond to competitive pressures; and result in loss of team members and reduced productivity of remaining team members. Our growth could require significant capital expenditures and may divert financial resources and management attention from other projects, such as the development of new or enhanced services or the acquisition of suitable businesses or technologies. If our management is unable to effectively manage our growth, our expenses may increase more than expected, our revenue could decline or may grow more slowly than expected, and we may be unable to implement our business strategy.
If we do not continue to innovate and provide services that are useful to customers and users, we may not remain competitive, and our revenue and results of operations could suffer.
The market for healthcare in the United States is in the early stages of structural change and is rapidly evolving toward a more value-based care model. Our success depends on our ability to keep pace with technological developments, satisfy increasingly sophisticated customer and user requirements, and sustain market acceptance. Our future financial performance will depend in part on growth in this market and on our ability to adapt to emerging demands of this market, including adapting to the ways our customers or users access and use our Solution. Although we have built eight new software analytics applications in the last three years, we may not be able to sustain this rate of innovation. Our competitors are constantly developing products and services that may become more efficient or appealing to our customers or users. As a result, we must continue to invest significant resources in research and development in order to enhance our existing services and introduce new high-quality services and applications that customers will want, while offering our Solution at competitive prices. If we are unable to predict user preferences or industry changes, or if we are unable to modify our Solution on a timely or cost-effective basis, we may lose customers and users. Our results of operations would also suffer if our innovations are not responsive to the needs of our customers, are not appropriately timed with market opportunity, or are not effectively brought to market, including as the result of delayed releases or releases that are ineffective or have errors or defects. As technology continues to develop, our competitors may be able to offer results that are, or that are perceived to be, substantially similar to, or better than, those generated by our Solution. This may force us to compete on additional service attributes and to expend significant resources in order to remain competitive.

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Our business could be adversely affected if our customers are not satisfied with our Solution.
We depend on customer satisfaction to succeed with respect to our cloud-based solutions. Our sales organization is dependent on the quality of our offerings, our business reputation, and the strong recommendations from existing customers. If our cloud-based software does not function reliably or fails to meet customer expectations in terms of performance and availability, customers could assert claims against us or terminate their contracts with us or publish negative feedback. This could damage our reputation and impair our ability to attract or retain customers. Furthermore, we provide professional services to customers to support their use of our applications and to achieve measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements.
Any failure to maintain high-quality professional services, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality professional services, could harm our reputation, adversely affect our ability to sell our Solution to existing and prospective customers, and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If our existing customers do not continue or renew their contracts with us, renew at lower fee levels or decline to purchase additional technology and services from us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We expect to derive a significant portion of our revenue from the renewal of existing customer contracts and sales of additional technology and services to existing customers. As part of our growth strategy, for instance, we have recently focused on expanding our Solution among current customers. As a result, selling additional technology and services is critical to our future business, revenue growth, and results of operations.
Factors that may affect our ability to sell additional technology and services include, but are not limited to, the following:
the price, performance, and functionality of our Solution;
the availability, price, performance, and functionality of competing solutions;
our ability to develop and sell complementary technology and services;
the stability, performance, and security of our hosting infrastructure and hosting services;
our ability to continuously deliver measurable improvements;
health systems’ demand for professional services to augment their internal data analytics function;
changes in healthcare laws, regulations, or trends; and
the business environment of our customers and, in particular, headcount reductions by our customers.
We enter into subscription contracts with our customers for access to our Solution. Many of these contracts have initial terms of one to three years. Most of our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our Solution after the initial term expires. Although we have long-term contracts with many customers, these contracts may be terminated by the customer before their term expires for various reasons, such as changes in the regulatory landscape and poor performance by us, subject to certain conditions. For example, after a specified period, certain of these contracts are terminable for convenience by our customers, subject to providing us with prior notice. Certain of our contracts may be terminated by the customer immediately following repeated failures by us to provide specified levels of service over periods ranging from six months to more than a year. Certain of our contracts may be terminated immediately by the customer if we lose applicable third-party licenses, go bankrupt, or lose our liability insurance. If any of our contracts with our customers are terminated, we may not be able to recover all fees due under the terminated contract and we will lose future revenue from that customer, which may adversely affect our results of operations. We expect that future contracts will contain similar provisions.
In addition, our customers may negotiate terms less advantageous to us upon renewal, which may reduce our revenue from these customers. Our future results of operations also depend, in part, on our ability to upgrade and enhance our Solution. If our customers fail to renew their contracts, renew their contracts upon less favorable terms, or at lower fee levels or fail to purchase new technology and services from us, our revenue may decline or our future revenue growth may be constrained.

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Our Solution is dependent on our ability to source data from third parties, and such third parties could take steps to block our access to data, which could impair our ability to provide our Solution or limit the effectiveness of our Solution.
Our data platform requires us to source data from multiple clinical, financial, and operational data sources, which sources are also typically third-party vendors of our customers. The functioning of our analytics applications and our ability to perform analytics services is predicated on our ability to establish interfaces that download the relevant data from these source systems on a repeated basis and in a reliable manner. We may encounter vendors who engage in information blocking practices that may inhibit our ability to access the relevant data on behalf of customers. A proposed rulemaking issued on March 3, 2019 (the Proposed Rule) pursuant to the 21st Century Cures Act anti-information blocking provisions prohibits practices that are meant to prevent, materially discourage, or otherwise inhibit access, exchange, or use of electronic health information. The Proposed Rule allows for certain exceptions such as allowing vendors to charge a reasonable cost for access to interoperability elements of its technology to enable data access. However, the Proposed Rule may not be finalized for some time, and the final rule may be modified in ways that are less discouraging of information blocking practices than is the Proposed Rule. Further, healthcare organizations and vendors may decide in the interim not to observe the provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act or may adapt interpretations of the 21st Century Cures Act, the Proposed Rule, and/or the final rule that justify the continuation of various information blocking practices. If we face limitations on the development of data interfaces and other information blocking practices, our data access and ability to download relevant data may be limited, which could adversely affect our ability to provide our Solution as effectively as possible. Any steps we take to enforce the anti-information blocking provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act could be costly, could distract management attention from the business, and could have uncertain results.
Failure by our customers to obtain proper permissions and waivers may result in claims against us or may limit or prevent our use of data, which could harm our business.
We require our customers to provide necessary notices and to obtain necessary permissions and waivers for use and disclosure of the information that we receive, and we require contractual assurances from them that they have done so and will do so. If they do not obtain necessary permissions and waivers, then our use and disclosure of information that we receive from them or on their behalf may be restricted or prohibited by state, federal or international privacy or data protection laws, or other related privacy and data protection laws. This could impair our functions, processes, and databases that reflect, contain, or are based upon such data and may prevent the use of such data, including our ability to provide such data to third parties that are incorporated into our service offerings. Furthermore, this may cause us to breach obligations to third parties to whom we may provide such data, such as third-party service or technology providers that are incorporated into our service offerings. In addition, this could interfere with or prevent data sourcing, data analyses, or limit other data-driven activities that benefit us. Moreover, we may be subject to claims, civil and/or criminal liability or government or state attorneys general investigations for use or disclosure of information by reason of lack of valid notice, permission, or waiver. These claims, liabilities or government or state attorneys general investigations could subject us to unexpected costs and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to customer data is otherwise obtained, our Solution may be perceived as not being secure, customers may reduce the use of or stop using our Solution, and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our Solution involves the storage and transmission of our customers’ proprietary information, including personal or identifying information regarding patients and their protected health information (PHI). As a result, unauthorized access or security breaches as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance, or otherwise could result in the loss or inappropriate use of information, litigation, indemnity obligations, damage to our reputation, and other liability such as government or state Attorney General investigations. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Moreover, the detection, prevention, and remediation of known or unknown security vulnerabilities, including those arising from third-party hardware or software, may result in additional direct or indirect costs and management time.
Any or all of these issues could adversely affect our ability to attract new customers, cause existing customers to elect to not renew their subscriptions, result in reputational damage, or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines, mandatory disclosures, or other action or liability, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Our general liability insurance may not be adequate to cover all potential claims to which we are exposed and may not be adequate to indemnify us for liability that may be imposed or the losses associated with such events, and in any case, such insurance may not cover all of the specific costs, expenses, and losses we could incur in responding to and remediating a security breach. A security breach of another significant provider of cloud-based solutions may also negatively impact the demand for our Solution.

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Our results of operations have in the past fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate significantly, and if we fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors, our stock price and the value of an investment in our common stock could decline substantially.
Our results of operations are likely to fluctuate, and if we fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Moreover, our stock price may be based on expectations of our future performance that may be unrealistic or that may not be met. Some of the factors that could cause our revenue and results of operations to fluctuate from quarter to quarter include:
the extent to which our Solution achieves or maintains market acceptance;
our ability to introduce new applications, updates, and enhancements to our existing applications on a timely basis;
new competitors and the introduction of enhanced products and services from new or existing competitors;
the length of our contracting and implementation cycles and our fulfillment periods for our Solution;
the mix of revenue generated from professional services as compared to technology subscriptions;
the financial condition of our current and future customers;
changes in customer budgets and procurement policies;
changes in regulations or marketing strategies;
the amount and timing of our investment in research and development activities;
the amount and timing of our investment in sales and marketing activities;
technical difficulties or interruptions to our DOS platform or analytics applications;
our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel;
changes in the regulatory environment related to healthcare;
regulatory compliance costs;
the timing, size, and integration success of potential future acquisitions;
unforeseen legal expenses, including litigation and settlement costs; and
buying patterns of our customers and the related seasonality impacts on our business.
Many of these factors are not within our control, and the occurrence of one or more of them might cause our results of operations to vary widely. As such, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our revenue and results of operations may not be meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance.
A significant portion of our operating expense is relatively fixed in nature in the short term, and planned expenditures are based in part on expectations regarding future revenue and profitability. Accordingly, unexpected revenue shortfalls, lower-than-expected revenue increases as a result of planned expenditures, and longer-than-expected impact on profitability and margins as a result of planned expenditures may decrease our gross margins and profitability and could cause significant changes in our results of operations from quarter to quarter. In addition, our future quarterly results of operations may fluctuate and may not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors. If this occurs, the trading price of our common stock could fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.

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Our pricing may change over time and our ability to efficiently price our Solution will affect our results of operations and our ability to attract or retain customers.
In the past, we have adjusted our prices as a result of offering new applications and services and customer demand. In the fourth quarter of 2018, we began to introduce new pricing for our Solution to new customers, the full effect of which we expect would be realized in future years. While we determined these prices based on prior experience and feedback from customers, our assessments may not be accurate and we could be underpricing or overpricing our Solution, which may require us to continue to adjust our pricing model. Furthermore, as our applications and services change, then we may need to, or choose to, revise our pricing as our prior experience in those areas will be limited. For example, we introduced our subscription model in 2015, and we may need to continually refine our pricing model. Such changes to our pricing model or our inability to efficiently price our Solution could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition and impact our ability to predict our future performance.
If our Solution fails to provide accurate and timely information, or if our content or any other element of our Solution is associated with faulty clinical decisions or treatment, we could have liability to customers, members, clinicians, or patients, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our applications, content, and services may be used by customers to support clinical decision-making by providers and interpret information about patient medical histories, treatment plans, medical conditions, and the use of particular medications. If our applications, content, or services are associated with faulty clinical decisions or treatment, then customers or their patients could assert claims against us that could result in substantial costs to us, harm our reputation in the industry, and cause demand for our Solution to decline.
Our analytics services may be used by our customers to inform clinical decision-making, provide access to patient medical histories, and assist in creating patient treatment plans. Therefore, if data analyses are presented incorrectly in our applications or they are incomplete, or if we make mistakes in the capture or input of these data, adverse consequences, including death, may occur and give rise to product liability, medical malpractice liability, and other claims against us by customers, clinicians, patients, or others. We often have little control over data accuracy, yet a court or government agency may take the position that our storage and display of health information exposes us to personal injury liability or other liability for wrongful delivery or handling of healthcare services or erroneous health information.
Our clinical guidelines, algorithms, and protocols may be viewed as providing healthcare professionals with guidance on care management, care coordination, or treatment decisions. If our content, or content we obtain from third parties, contains inaccuracies, or we introduce inaccuracies in the process of implementing third-party content, it is possible that patients, physicians, consumers, the providers of the third-party content, or others may sue us if they are harmed as a result of such inaccuracies. We cannot assure you that our software development, editorial, and other quality control procedures will be sufficient to ensure that there are no errors or omissions in any particular content or our software or algorithms.
The assertion of such claims and ensuing litigation, regardless of its outcome, could result in substantial cost to us, divert management’s attention from operations, damage our reputation, and decrease market acceptance of our Solution. We attempt to limit by contract our liability for damages, have our customers assume responsibility for clinical treatment, diagnoses, medical oversight, and dosing decisions, and require that our customers assume responsibility for medical care and approve key algorithms, clinical guidelines, clinical protocols, and data. Despite these precautions, the allocations of responsibility and limitations of liability set forth in our contracts may not be enforceable, be binding upon patients, or otherwise protect us from liability for damages. Furthermore, general liability and errors and omissions insurance coverage and medical malpractice liability coverage may not continue to be available on acceptable terms or may not be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims against us. In addition, the insurer might disclaim coverage as to any future claim. One or more large claims could exceed our available insurance coverage.
If any of these events occur, they could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Although we carry insurance covering medical malpractice claims in amounts that we believe are appropriate in light of the risks attendant to our business, successful medical liability claims could result in substantial damage awards that exceed the limits of our insurance coverage. In addition, professional liability insurance is expensive and insurance premiums may increase significantly in the future, particularly as we expand our Solution. As a result, adequate professional liability insurance may not be available to our providers or to us in the future at acceptable costs or at all.

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Any claims made against us that are not fully covered by insurance could be costly to defend against, result in substantial damage awards against us and divert the attention of our management and our providers from our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, any claims may adversely affect our business or reputation.
We rely on third-party providers, including Microsoft Azure, for computing infrastructure, network connectivity, and other technology-related services needed to deliver our Solution. Any disruption in the services provided by such third-party providers could adversely affect our business and subject us to liability.
Our DOS platform and analytics applications are hosted from and use computing infrastructure provided by third parties, including Microsoft Azure and Flexential, and other computing infrastructure service providers. We have migrated and expect to continue to migrate a significant portion of our computing infrastructure needs to Microsoft Azure. We have made and expect to continue to make substantial investments in transitioning customers from our own managed data center to Microsoft Azure. We anticipate that this transition will increase the cost of hosting our technology and negatively impact our technology gross margin. We currently expect our planned transitions to be substantially complete by the end of 2020. Such migrations are risky and may cause disruptions to our Solution, service outages, downtime, or other problems and may increase our costs. Despite precautions taken during such transitions, any unsuccessful transition of technology may impair customers’ use of our technology which may cause greater costs or downtime and which may lead to, among other things, customer dissatisfaction and non-renewals.
Our computing infrastructure service providers have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or if one of our computing infrastructure service providers is acquired, we may be required to transition to a new provider and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so.
Problems faced by our computing infrastructure service providers, including those operated by Microsoft, could adversely affect the experience of our customers. Microsoft Azure has also had and may in the future experience significant service outages. Additionally, if our computing infrastructure service providers are unable to keep up with our growing needs for capacity, this could have an adverse effect on our business. For example, a rapid expansion of our business could affect our service levels or cause our third-party hosted systems to fail. Our agreements with third-party computing infrastructure service providers may not entitle us to service level credits that correspond with those we offer to our customers.
Any changes in third-party service levels at our computing infrastructure service providers, or any related disruptions or performance problems with our Solution, could adversely affect our reputation and may damage our customers’ stored files, result in lengthy interruptions in our services, or result in potential losses of customer data. Interruptions in our services might reduce our revenue, cause us to issue refunds to customers for prepaid and unused subscriptions, subject us to service level credit claims and potential liability, allow our customers to terminate their contracts with us, or adversely affect our renewal rates.
We rely on Internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, data center providers, other third parties, and our own systems for providing services to our users, and any failure or interruption in the services provided by these third parties or our own systems could expose us to litigation, potentially require us to issue credits to our customers, and negatively impact our relationships with users or customers, adversely affecting our brand and our business.
In addition to the services we provide from our offices, we serve our customers primarily from third-party data-hosting facilities. These facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, and similar events. They are also subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism, and similar misconduct. Their systems and servers could also be subject to hacking, spamming, ransomware, computer viruses or other malicious software, denial of service attacks, service disruptions, including the inability to process certain transactions, phishing attacks and unauthorized access attempts, including third parties gaining access to users’ accounts using stolen or inferred credentials or other means, and may use such access to prevent use of users’ accounts. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at two or more of the facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our services. Even with our disaster recovery arrangements, our services could be interrupted.
Our ability to deliver our Internet- and telecommunications-based services is dependent on the development and maintenance of the infrastructure of the Internet and other telecommunications services by third parties. This includes maintenance of a reliable network backbone with the necessary speed, data capacity, and security for providing reliable Internet access and services and reliable mobile device, telephone, facsimile, and pager systems, all at a predictable and reasonable cost. We have experienced and expect that we will experience interruptions and delays in services and availability from time to time.

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We rely on internal systems as well as third-party vendors, including data center, bandwidth, and telecommunications equipment or service providers, to provide our services. We do not maintain redundant systems or facilities for some of these services. In the event of a catastrophic event with respect to one or more of these systems or facilities, we may experience an extended period of system unavailability, which could negatively impact our relationship with users or customers. To operate without interruption, both we and our service providers must guard against:
damage from fire, power loss, and other natural disasters;
communications failures;
software and hardware errors, failures, and crashes;
security breaches, computer viruses, ransomware, and similar disruptive problems; and
other potential interruptions.
Any disruption in the network access, telecommunications, or co-location services provided by these third-party providers or any failure of or by these third-party providers or our own systems to handle the current or higher volume of use could significantly harm our business. We exercise limited control over these third-party vendors, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide.
Any errors, failures, interruptions, or delays experienced in connection with these third-party technologies and information services or our own systems could negatively impact our relationships with users and customers, adversely affect our brands and business, and expose us to third-party liabilities. The insurance coverage under our policies may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at an acceptable cost.
The reliability and performance of the Internet may be harmed by increased usage or by denial-of-service attacks. The Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damages to portions of its infrastructure, and it could face outages and delays in the future. These outages and delays could reduce the level of Internet usage as well as the availability of the Internet to us for delivery of our Internet-based services.
We typically provide service level commitments under our customer contracts. If we fail to meet these contractual commitments, we could be obligated to provide credits or refunds for prepaid amounts related to unused subscription services or face contract terminations, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Finally, recent changes in law could impact the cost and availability of necessary Internet infrastructure. Increased costs and/or decreased availability would negatively affect our results of operations.
If we fail to provide effective professional services and high-quality customer support, our business and reputation would suffer.
Our professional services and high-quality, ongoing customer support are important to the successful marketing and sale of our products and services and for the renewal of existing customer agreements. Providing these services and support requires that our professional services and support personnel have healthcare, technical, and other knowledge and expertise, making it difficult for us to hire qualified personnel and scale our professional services and support operations. The demand on our customer support organization will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers, and such increased support could require us to devote significant development services and support personnel, which could strain our team and infrastructure and reduce our profit margins. If we do not help our customers quickly resolve any post-implementation issues and provide effective ongoing customer support, our ability to sell additional products and services to existing and future customers could suffer and our reputation would be harmed.
Our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts require a considerable investment of time and expense. If our sales cycle lengthens or we invest substantial resources pursuing unsuccessful sales opportunities, our results of operations and growth would be harmed.
Our sales process entails planning discussions with prospective customers, analyzing their existing solutions and identifying how these potential customers can use and benefit from our Solution. The sales cycle for a new customer, from the time of prospect qualification to the completion of the first sale, has averaged 11 months and in some cases has exceeded 24 months. We spend substantial time, effort and money in our sales efforts without any assurance that our efforts will result in the sale of our Solution.

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In addition, our sales cycle and timing of sales can vary substantially from customer to customer because of various factors, including the discretionary nature of potential customers’ purchasing and budget decisions, the announcement or planned introduction of new analytics applications or services by us or our competitors, and the purchasing approval processes of potential customers. If our sales cycle lengthens or we invest substantial resources pursuing unsuccessful sales opportunities, our results of operations and growth would be harmed.
Our DOS platform or our analytics applications may not operate properly, which could damage our reputation, give rise to claims against us, or divert application of our resources from other purposes, any of which could harm our business and results of operations.
Proprietary software development is time-consuming, expensive, and complex. Unforeseen difficulties can arise. We may encounter technical obstacles, and it is possible that we will discover additional problems that prevent our applications from operating properly.
If our systems do not function reliably or fail to meet user or customer expectations in terms of performance, customers could assert liability claims against us or attempt to cancel their contracts with us, and members could choose to terminate their use of our Solution. This could damage our reputation and impair our ability to attract or retain customers and members.
Information services as complex as those we offer have, in the past, contained, and may in the future develop or contain, undetected defects, vulnerabilities, or errors. We cannot be assured that material performance problems or defects in our software will not arise in the future. Errors may result from sources beyond our control, including the receipt, entry, or interpretation of patient information; the interface of our software with legacy systems that we did not develop; or errors in data provided by third parties. Despite testing, defects or errors may arise in our existing or new software or service processes following introduction to the market.
Customers rely on our Solution to collect, manage, and report clinical, financial, and operational data, and to provide timely and accurate information regarding medical treatment and care delivery patterns. They may have a greater sensitivity to service errors and security vulnerabilities than customers of software products in general. Clinicians may also rely on our predictive models for care delivery prioritization, and to inform treatment protocols. Limitations of liability and disclaimers that purport to limit our liability for damages related to defects in our software or content which we may include in our subscription and services agreements may not be enforced by a court or other tribunal or otherwise effectively protect us from related claims. In most cases, we maintain liability insurance coverage, including coverage for errors and omissions. However, it is possible that claims could exceed the amount of our applicable insurance coverage or that this coverage may not continue to be available on acceptable terms or insufficient amounts.
In light of this, defects, vulnerabilities, and errors and any failure by us to identify and address them could result in loss of revenue or market share; liability to customers, members, their patients, or others; failure to achieve market acceptance or expansion; diversion of development and management resources; delays in the introduction of new services; injury to our reputation; and increased service and maintenance costs. Defects, vulnerabilities, or errors in our software and service processes might discourage existing or potential customers or members from purchasing services from us. Correction of defects, vulnerabilities, or errors could prove to be impossible or impracticable. The costs incurred in correcting any defects, vulnerabilities, or errors or in responding to resulting claims or liability may be substantial and could adversely affect our results of operations.
If we are not able to maintain and enhance our reputation and brand recognition, our business and results of operations will be harmed.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand recognition is critical to our relationships with existing customers and to our ability to attract new customers. The promotion of our brands may require us to make substantial investments and we anticipate that, as our market becomes increasingly competitive, these marketing initiatives may become increasingly difficult and expensive. Our marketing activities may not be successful or yield increased revenue, and to the extent that these activities yield increased revenue, the increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur and our results of operations could be harmed. In addition, any factor that diminishes our reputation or that of our management, including failing to meet the expectations of our customers, or any adverse publicity surrounding one of our investors or customers, could make it substantially more difficult for us to attract new customers. If we do not successfully maintain and enhance our reputation and brand recognition, our business may not grow and we could lose our relationships with customers, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

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We employ third-party licensed software and software components for use in or with our Solution, and the inability to maintain these licenses or the presence of errors in the software we license could limit the functionality of our Solution and result in increased costs or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.
Our software applications might incorporate or interact with certain third-party software and software components (other than open-source software), such as data visualization software, obtained under licenses from other companies. We pay these third parties a license fee or royalty payment. We anticipate that we will continue to use such third-party software in the future.
Although we believe that there are commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software we currently make available, this may not always be the case, or it may be difficult or costly to replace. Furthermore, these third parties may increase the price for licensing their software, which could negatively impact our results of operations. Our use of additional or alternative third-party software could require customers to enter into license agreements with third parties. In addition, if the third-party software we make available has errors or otherwise malfunctions, or if the third-party terminates its agreement with us, the functionality of our Solution may be negatively impacted and our business may suffer.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from our largest customers. The loss, termination, or renegotiation of any contract could negatively impact our results.
Historically, we have relied on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our total revenue and accounts receivable. Our three largest customers during 2019 comprised 4.6%, 3.6%, and 3.6% of our revenue, or 11.8% in the aggregate. Our three largest customers during 2018 comprised 7.6%, 5.4%, and 4.5% of our revenue, or 17.5% in the aggregate. The sudden loss of any of our largest customers or the renegotiation of any of our largest customer contracts could adversely affect our results of operations. In the ordinary course of business, we engage in active discussions and renegotiations with our customers in respect of the solutions we provide and the terms of our customer agreements, including our fees. As our customers’ businesses respond to market dynamics and financial pressures, and as our customers make strategic business decisions in respect of the lines of business they pursue and programs in which they participate, we expect that certain of our customers will, from time to time, seek to restructure their agreements with us. In the ordinary course, we renegotiate the terms of our agreements with our customers in connection with renewals or extensions of these agreements. These discussions and future discussions could result in reductions to the fees and changes to the scope of services contemplated by our original customer contracts and consequently could negatively impact our revenue, business, and prospects.
Because we rely on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our revenue, we depend on the creditworthiness of these customers. Our customers are subject to a number of risks including reductions in payment rates from governmental payors, higher than expected health care costs, and lack of predictability of financial results when entering new lines of business. If the financial condition of our customers declines, our credit risk could increase. Should one or more of our significant customers declare bankruptcy, be declared insolvent, or otherwise be restricted by state or federal laws or regulation from continuing in some or all of their operations, this could adversely affect our ongoing revenue, the collectability of our accounts receivable, and affect our bad debt reserves and net income.
We may not grow at the rates we historically have achieved or at all, even if our key metrics may indicate growth.
We have experienced significant growth in the last five years. Future revenue may not grow at these same rates or may decline. Our future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to grow our revenue from existing customers, to complete sales to potential future customers, to expand our customer and member bases, to develop new solutions, and to expand internationally. We can provide no assurances that we will be successful in executing on these growth strategies or that we will continue to grow our revenue or to generate net income. Our historical results may not be indicative of future performance. Our ability to execute on our existing sales pipeline, create additional sales pipelines, and expand our customer base depends on, among other things, the attractiveness of our Solution relative to those offered by our competitors, our ability to demonstrate the value of our existing and future services, and our ability to attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified sales and marketing leadership and support personnel. In addition, our existing customers may be slower to adopt our Solution than we currently anticipate, which could adversely affect our results of operations and growth prospects.
Changes in the healthcare industry could affect the demand for our Solution, cause our existing contracts to be terminated, and negatively impact the process of negotiating future contracts.
As the healthcare industry evolves, changes in our customer and vendor bases may reduce the demand for our Solution, result in the termination of existing contracts or certain services provided under existing contracts, and make it more difficult to negotiate new contracts on terms that are acceptable to us.

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For example, the increasing market share of EHR companies in data analytic services at hospital systems may cause our existing customers to terminate contracts with us in order to engage EHR companies to provide these services. Similarly, customer and vendor consolidation results in fewer, larger entities with increased bargaining power and the ability to demand terms that are unfavorable to us. If these trends continue, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to maintain or expand our customer base, negotiate contracts with acceptable terms, or maintain our current pricing structure, and our revenue may decrease.
General reductions in expenditures by healthcare organizations, or reductions in such expenditures within market segments that we serve, could have similar impacts with regard to our Solution. Such reductions may result from, among other things, reduced governmental funding for healthcare; a decrease in the number of, or the market exclusivity available to, new drugs coming to market; or adverse changes in business or economic conditions affecting healthcare payors or providers, the pharmaceutical industry, or other healthcare companies that purchase our services (e.g., changes in the design of health plans). In addition, changes in government regulation of the healthcare industry could potentially negatively impact our existing and future contracts. Any of these changes could reduce the purchase of our Solution by such customers, reducing our revenue and possibly requiring us to materially revise our offerings. In addition, our customers’ expectations regarding pending or potential industry developments may also affect their budgeting processes and spending plans with respect to our Solution.
Because we generally recognize technology and professional services revenue ratably over the term of the contract for our services, a significant downturn in our business may not be reflected immediately in our results of operations, which increases the difficulty of evaluating our future financial performance.
We generally recognize technology and professional services revenue ratably over the term of a contract. As a result, a substantial portion of our revenue is generated from contracts entered into during prior periods. Consequently, a decline in new contracts in any quarter may not affect our results of operations in that quarter but could reduce our revenue in future quarters. Additionally, the timing of renewals or non-renewals of a contract during any quarter may only affect our financial performance in future quarters. For example, the non-renewal of a subscription agreement late in a quarter will have minimal impact on revenue for that quarter but will reduce our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant declines in sales may not be reflected in our short-term results of operations, which would make these reported results less indicative of our future financial results. By contrast, a non-renewal occurring early in a quarter may have a significant negative impact on revenue for that quarter and we may not be able to offset a decline in revenue due to non-renewal with revenue from new contracts entered into in the same quarter. In addition, we may be unable to quickly adjust our costs in response to reduced revenue.
The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included herein may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the markets in which we compete achieve the forecasted growth, our business may not grow at similar rates, or at all.
Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included herein are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates which may not prove to be accurate. The estimates and forecasts included herein relating to the size and expected growth of our target market may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the markets in which we compete meet the size estimates and growth forecasts included herein, our business may not grow at similar rates, or at all. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties.
We have experienced significant net losses since inception, we expect to incur losses in the future, and we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve and maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant net losses in the past, including net losses of $60.1 million and $62.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of $610.5 million as of December 31, 2019. We expect our costs will increase over time as we continue to invest to grow our business and build relationships with customers, develop our platform, develop new solutions, and operate as a public company. These efforts may prove to be more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses.
As a result, we may need to raise additional capital through equity and debt financings in order to fund our operations. To date, we have financed our operations principally from the sale of redeemable convertible preferred stock, revenue from sales of our Solution and the incurrence of indebtedness. We may also fail to improve the gross margins of our business. If we are unable to effectively manage these risks and difficulties as we encounter them, our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be adversely affected. Our failure to achieve or maintain profitability could negatively impact the value of our common stock.

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Because competition for our target employees is intense, we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees we need to support our continued growth.
To continue to execute on our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense, especially for senior sales executives and software engineers with high levels of experience in designing and developing applications and consulting and analytics services. We may not be successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel. We have from time to time in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience in the future, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications. In addition, our search for replacements for departed employees may cause uncertainty regarding the future of our business, impact employee hiring and retention, and adversely impact our revenue, results of operations, and financial condition.
Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the Internet and high-technology industries, job candidates often consider the value of the equity awards they may receive in connection with their employment. Volatility in the price of our stock or failure to obtain stockholder approval for increases in the number of shares available for grant under our equity plans may, therefore, adversely affect our ability to attract or retain key employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.
We depend on our senior management team, and the loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers and recruitment of additional highly skilled employees. From time to time, there may be changes in our senior management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. Several of our senior leaders are active members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.  There is a risk that in the future, one or more of these individuals could receive a call to serve in a full-time capacity for the church.  This has already occurred with one of the two co-founders of our company, Steven Barlow, who in November 2016 was called to serve from June 2017 to June 2020 in a full-time capacity.  At the time of his call, he was serving as the President of our professional services organization and was one of the most senior leaders of our company.  In connection with this call to serve, Mr. Barlow took a leave-of-absence from his company responsibilities starting in March 2017, and his leave of absence will likely extend until August 2020. Hiring executives with needed skills or the replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.
In addition, competition for qualified management in our industry is intense. Many of the companies with which we compete for management personnel have greater financial and other resources than we do. We have not entered into term-based employment agreements with our executive officers. All of our employees are “at-will” employees, and their employment can be terminated by us or them at any time, for any reason. The departure of key personnel could adversely affect the conduct of our business. In such event, we would be required to hire other personnel to manage and operate our business, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to employ a suitable replacement for the departing individual, or that a replacement could be hired on terms that are favorable to us. In addition, volatility or lack of performance in our stock price may affect our ability to attract replacements should key personnel depart. If we are not able to retain any of our key management personnel, our business could be harmed.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, creativity, and teamwork fostered by our culture, which could harm our business.
We believe that our corporate culture has been an important contributor to our success, which we believe fosters innovation, teamwork, and passion for providing high levels of customer satisfaction. Most of our employees have been with us for fewer than three years as a result of our rapid growth. As we continue to grow, we must effectively integrate, develop, and motivate a growing number of new employees. As a result, we may find it difficult to maintain our corporate culture, which could limit our ability to innovate and operate effectively. Any failure to preserve our culture could also negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, maintain our performance, or execute on our business strategy.

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The terms of our credit facility require us to meet certain operating and financial covenants and place restrictions on our operating and financial flexibility. If we raise additional capital through debt financing, the terms of any new debt could further restrict our ability to operate our business.
On February 6, 2019, we entered into a term loan facility with OrbiMed Royalty Opportunities II, LP (OrbiMed) in the amount of $80.0 million (the OrbiMed Credit Facility) as further described in detail in Note 10 in the consolidated financial statements. The OrbiMed Credit Facility is secured by a lien covering substantially all of our assets, including our intellectual property. Subject to the terms of the Credit Agreement entered into in connection with the OrbiMed Credit Facility (the OrbiMed Credit Agreement), amounts borrowed under the facility are repaid in twelve monthly installments beginning on the amortization commencement date, as defined in the OrbiMed Credit Agreement, prior to the February 6, 2024 maturity date, at which time all amounts borrowed will be due and payable. In addition, our revolving line of credit with Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) includes certain restrictive covenants (the SVB Credit Agreement).
The OrbiMed Credit Agreement and SVB Credit Agreement contain customary affirmative and negative covenants, indemnification provisions, and events of default. The affirmative covenants include, among others, covenants requiring us to maintain our legal existence and regulatory authorizations, deliver certain financial reports, and maintain certain intellectual property rights. The negative covenants include, among others, restrictions on transferring or licensing our assets, changing our business, incurring additional indebtedness, engaging in mergers or acquisitions, paying dividends or making other distributions, and creating other liens on our assets, in each case subject to customary exceptions. If we default under the OrbiMed Credit Agreement, the lender will be able to declare all obligations immediately due and payable and take control of our pledged assets, potentially requiring us to renegotiate our agreement on terms less favorable to us or to immediately cease operations. Further, if we are liquidated, the lender’s rights to repayment would be senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock to receive any proceeds from the liquidation. The lender could declare a default under the OrbiMed Credit Agreement upon the occurrence of any event that has had or could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect as defined under the OrbiMed Credit Agreement, thereby requiring us to repay the loan immediately or to attempt to reverse the declaration of default through negotiation or litigation. Any declaration by the lender of an event of default could significantly harm our business and prospects and could cause the price of our common shares to decline. If we raise any additional debt financing, the terms of such additional debt could further restrict our operating and financial flexibility.
We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders, and otherwise disrupt our operations and we may have difficulty integrating any such acquisitions successfully or realizing the anticipated benefits therefrom, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may seek to acquire or invest in businesses, applications, and services, or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our Solution, enhance our technical capabilities, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating, and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated. We have in the past and may in the future have difficulty integrating acquired businesses. For example, in June 2018 we acquired the interoperability services of the Medicity business and in February 2020 we acquired Able Health, Inc., both of which we are in the process of integrating with our other services. We may have difficulty cross-selling our Solution to acquired customers, and we may have difficulty integrating newly acquired team members.
We have limited experience in acquiring other businesses. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations, and technologies successfully, or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services in a profitable manner;
unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;
difficulty integrating the accounting systems, operations, and personnel of the acquired business;
difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;
difficulty converting the customers of the acquired business onto our platform and contract terms, including disparities in the revenue, licensing, support, or professional services model of the acquired company;

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diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
adverse effects on our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;
the potential loss of key employees;
use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our results of operations based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may suffer.
Also, the anticipated benefit of any acquisition may not materialize or may be prohibited. In February 2019, we entered into the OrbiMed Credit Facility. The OrbiMed Credit Agreement, along with the SVB Credit Agreement, restricts our ability to pursue certain mergers, acquisitions, or consolidations that we may believe to be in our best interest. Additionally, future acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, or amortization expenses or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. We cannot predict the number, timing or size of future acquisitions, or the effect that any such transactions might have on our results of operations.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service our indebtedness.
It is possible that we will in the future draw down on our credit facilities with OrbiMed or SVB or enter into new debt obligations. Our ability to make scheduled payments or to refinance such debt obligations depends on numerous factors, including the amount of our cash balances and our actual and projected financial and operating performance. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash balances or cash flows sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our existing or future indebtedness. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations, seek additional capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness.
We may not be able to take any of these actions, and even if we are, these actions may be insufficient to permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In addition, in the event of our breach of the OrbiMed Credit Agreement, we may be required to repay any outstanding amounts earlier than anticipated. If for any reason we become unable to service our debt obligations under the OrbiMed Credit Agreement, or any new debt obligations that we may enter into from time to time, holders of our common stock would be exposed to the risk that their holdings could be lost in an event of a default under such debt obligations and a foreclosure and sale of our assets for an amount that is less than the outstanding debt.
Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon our intellectual property. As of December 31, 2019, we had filed applications for a number of patents, and we have nine issued U.S., three issued Canadian patents, one issued Great Britain patent, and one issued European patent. We also have twenty-six registered trademarks in the United States, Canada, and China. We also rely on copyright and trademark laws, trade secret protection, and confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, customers, partners, and others to protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. For example, other parties, including our competitors, may independently develop similar technology, duplicate our services, or design around our intellectual property and, in such cases, we may not be able to assert our intellectual property rights against such parties. Further, our contractual arrangements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of our confidential information, and we may be unable to detect the unauthorized use of, or take appropriate steps to enforce, our intellectual property rights.

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We make business decisions about when to seek patent protection for a particular technology and when to rely upon trade secret protection, and the approach we select may ultimately prove to be inadequate. Even in cases where we seek patent protection, there is no assurance that the resulting patents will effectively protect every significant feature of our Solution, technology, or proprietary information, or provide us with any competitive advantages. Moreover, we cannot guarantee that any of our pending patent applications will issue or be approved. The United States Patent and Trademark Office and various foreign governmental patent agencies also require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment, and other similar provisions during the patent application process and after a patent has issued. There are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent, or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If this occurs, our competitors might be able to enter the market, which would have a material adverse effect on our business. Effective trademark, copyright, patent, and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which we conduct business. Further, intellectual property law, including statutory and case law, particularly in the United States, is constantly developing, and any changes in the law could make it harder for us to enforce our rights.
In order to protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect these rights. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming, and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. An adverse determination of any litigation proceedings could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our related pending patent applications at risk of not issuing. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential or sensitive information could be compromised by disclosure in the event of litigation. In addition, during the course of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Negative publicity related to a decision by us to initiate such enforcement actions against a customer or former customer, regardless of its accuracy, may adversely impact our other customer relationships or prospective customer relationships, harm our brand and business, and could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Our failure to secure, protect, and enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our brand and our business.
We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights or misappropriation of intellectual property.
There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our industry. Our future success depends in part on not infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others. Our competitors, as well as a number of other entities and individuals, including so-called non-practicing entities (NPEs), may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to our Solution. From time to time, third parties may claim that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights or that we have misappropriated their intellectual property. For example, in some cases, very broad patents are granted that may be interpreted as covering a wide field of healthcare data storage and analytics solutions or machine learning and predictive modeling methods in healthcare. As competition in our market grows, the possibility of patent infringement, trademark infringement, and other intellectual property claims against us increases. In the future, we expect others to claim that our Solution and underlying technology infringe or violate their intellectual property rights. In a patent infringement claim against us, we may assert, as a defense, that we do not infringe the relevant patent claims, that the patent is invalid or both. The strength of our defenses will depend on the patents asserted, the interpretation of these patents, and our ability to invalidate the asserted patents. However, we could be unsuccessful in advancing non-infringement and/or invalidity arguments in our defense. In the United States, issued patents enjoy a presumption of validity, and the party challenging the validity of a patent claim must present clear and convincing evidence of invalidity, which is a high burden of proof. Conversely, the patent owner need only prove infringement by a preponderance of the evidence, which is a lower burden of proof. We may be unaware of the intellectual property rights that others may claim cover some or all of our technology or services. Because patent applications can take years to issue and are often afforded confidentiality for some period of time there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that later result in issued patents that could cover one or more aspects of our technology and services. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, whether or not successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages, ongoing royalty or license payments, or settlement fees, prevent us from offering our Solution or using certain technologies, require us to re-engineer all or a portion of our platform, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. We may also be obligated to indemnify our customers or business partners or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to obtain licenses, modify applications, or refund fees, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.

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Economic uncertainties or downturns in the general economy or the industries in which our customers operate could disproportionately affect the demand for our Solution and negatively impact our results of operations.
General worldwide economic conditions have experienced significant downturns during the last ten or more years, and market volatility and uncertainty remain widespread, making it potentially very difficult for our customers and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. During challenging economic times, our customers may have difficulty gaining timely access to sufficient credit or obtaining credit on reasonable terms, which could impair their ability to make timely payments to us and adversely affect our revenue. If that were to occur, our financial results could be harmed. Further, challenging economic conditions may impair the ability of our customers to pay for the applications and services they already have purchased from us and, as a result, our write-offs of accounts receivable could increase. We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown or recovery. If the condition of the general economy or markets in which we operate worsens, our business could be harmed.
Our Solution utilizes open-source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open-source licenses could adversely affect our business.
We use software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open-source” licenses in our Solution. Some open-source licenses contain affirmative obligations or restrictive terms that could adversely impact our business, such as restrictions on commercialization or obligations to make available modified or derivative works of certain open-source code. If we were to combine our proprietary software with certain open-source software subject to these licenses in a certain manner, we could, under certain open-source licenses, be required to release or otherwise make available the source code to our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.
Although we employ practices designed to manage our compliance with open-source licenses and protect our proprietary source code, we may inadvertently use open-source software in a manner we do not intend and that could expose us to claims for breach of contract and intellectual property infringement. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open-source software license, we could be required to, among other things, seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our products on terms that are not economically feasible, pay damages to third parties, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, or to make generally available, in source code form, a portion of our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. The terms of many open-source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and, as a result, there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our Solution.
Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use, value-added or similar transactional taxes, and we could be subject to liability with respect to past or future sales, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We do not collect sales and use, value-added, and similar transactional taxes in all jurisdictions in which we have sales, based on our belief that such taxes are not applicable or that we are not required to collect such taxes with respect to the jurisdiction. Sales and use, value-added, and similar tax laws and rates vary greatly by jurisdiction. Certain jurisdictions in which we do not collect such taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in tax assessments, penalties, and interest, and we may be required to collect such taxes in the future. Such tax assessments, penalties, interest or future requirements, increase in tax rates, or a combination of the foregoing may result in an increase in our sales and similar transactional taxes, increase administrative burdens or costs, or otherwise adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
Unanticipated changes in our effective tax rate and additional tax liabilities, including as a result of our international operations or implementation of new tax rules, could harm our future results.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and are expanding into various foreign jurisdictions that are subject to income tax. Our domestic and international tax liabilities are subject to the allocation of expenses in differing jurisdictions and complex transfer pricing regulations administered by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. Tax rates in the jurisdictions in which we operate may change as a result of factors outside of our control or relevant taxing authorities may disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. In addition, changes in tax and trade laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation or enforcement, have become more unpredictable and may become more stringent, which could materially adversely affect our tax position.

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Forecasting our estimated annual effective tax rate is complex and subject to uncertainty, and there may be material differences between our forecasted and actual effective tax rate. Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates, certain non-deductible expenses, the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, adjustments to income taxes upon finalization of tax returns, changes in available tax attributes, decision to repatriate non-U.S. earnings for which we have not previously provided for U.S. taxes, and changes in federal, state, or international tax laws and accounting principles.
Finally, we may be subject to income tax audits throughout the world. An adverse resolution of one or more uncertain tax positions in any period could have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition for that period.
If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
As a public company, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. However, we are not currently required to comply with the SEC rules that implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and are therefore not required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for that purpose.
As a public company, we are required to provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting commencing with our second annual report on Form 10-K. Many of the internal controls we have implemented pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are process controls with respect to which a material weakness may be found whether or not any error has been identified in our reported financial statements. This may be confusing to investors and result in damage to our reputation, which may harm our business. Additionally, the proper design and assessment of internal controls over financial reporting are subject to varying interpretations, and, as a result, application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies and as common practices evolve. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding the proper design and assessment of internal controls over financial reporting and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to internal controls.
We must continue to monitor and assess our internal control over financial reporting. If in the future we have any material weaknesses, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. Additionally, if in the future we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
As of December 31, 2019, we had net operating loss (NOL) carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes of approximately $269.1 million and $215.2 million, respectively, which may be available to offset taxable income in the future, and which expire in various years beginning in 2032 for federal purposes if not utilized. The state NOLs will expire depending upon the various rules in the states in which we operate. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize these NOLs before they expire. In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code) a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” (as defined under Section 382 of the Code and applicable Treasury Regulations) is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs to offset its future taxable income. We may experience a future ownership change (including, potentially, in connection with this offering) under Section 382 of the Code that could affect our ability to utilize the NOLs to offset our income. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we have acquired or may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to reduce future income tax liabilities, including for state income tax purposes. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs, even if we attain profitability, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us and could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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Comprehensive tax reform legislation could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the Tax Act) was signed into law. The Tax Act contains, among other things, significant changes to corporate taxation, including (i) a reduction of the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%, (ii) a limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense to 30% of adjusted earnings (except for certain small businesses), (iii) a limitation of the deduction for NOLs to 80% of current year taxable income in respect of NOLs generated during or after 2018 and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks, (iv) a one-time tax on offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, (v) immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, and (vi) a modification or repeal of many business deductions and credits. For federal NOLs arising in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, the Tax Act limits a taxpayer’s ability to utilize federal NOL carryforwards to 80% of taxable income. In addition, federal NOLs arising in tax years ending after December 31, 2017 can be carried forward indefinitely, but carryback is generally prohibited. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the newly enacted federal tax law. We will continue to examine the impact the Tax Act may have on our results of operations and financial condition.
Future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could result in additional liabilities.
We may from time to time be subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by our customers in connection with commercial disputes and employment claims made by our current or former employees. Claims may also be asserted by or on behalf of a variety of other parties, including government agencies, patients or vendors of our customers, or stockholders. Any litigation involving us may result in substantial costs, operationally restrict our business, and may divert management’s attention and resources, which may seriously harm our business, overall financial condition, and results of operations. Insurance may not cover existing or future claims, be sufficient to fully compensate us for one or more of such claims, or continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, thereby reducing our results of operations and resulting in a reduction in the trading price of our stock.
Changes in accounting principles may cause previously unanticipated fluctuations in our financial results, and the implementation of such changes may impact our ability to meet our financial reporting obligations.
We prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP which are subject to interpretation or changes by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the SEC, and other various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. New accounting pronouncements and changes in accounting principles have occurred in the past and are expected to occur in the future which may have a significant effect on our financial results. Furthermore, any difficulties in implementation of changes in accounting principles, including the ability to modify our accounting systems, could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.
Risks Related to Governmental Regulation
Government regulation of healthcare creates risks and challenges with respect to our compliance efforts and our business strategies.
The healthcare industry is highly regulated and is subject to changing political, legislative, regulatory, and other influences. Existing and new laws and regulations affecting the healthcare industry, or changes to existing laws and regulations, including the potential amendment or repeal of all or parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), could create unexpected liabilities for us, cause us to incur additional costs, and restrict our operations. Reforming the healthcare industry has been a priority for U.S. politicians, and key members of the legislative and executive branches have proposed a wide variety of potential changes and policy goals. Certain changes to laws impacting our industry, or perceived intentions to do so, could affect our business and results of operations.
Many healthcare laws are complex, and their application to specific services and relationships may not be clear. In particular, many existing healthcare laws and regulations, when enacted, did not anticipate the data analytics and improvement services that we provide, and these laws and regulations may be applied to our Solution in ways that we do not anticipate, particularly as we develop and release new and more sophisticated solutions. Our failure to accurately anticipate the application of these laws and regulations, or our other failure to comply with them, could create significant liability for us, result in adverse publicity, and negatively affect our business. Some of the risks we face from healthcare regulation are described below:


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False Claims Laws. There are numerous federal and state laws that prohibit submission of false information, or the failure to disclose information, in connection with submission and payment of physician claims for reimbursement. For example, the federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the U.S. federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent, or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act. If our advisory services to customers are associated with action by customers that is determined or alleged to be in violation of these laws and regulations, it is possible that an enforcement agency would also try to hold us accountable. Any determination by a court or regulatory agency that we have violated these laws could subject us to significant civil or criminal penalties, invalidate all or portions of some of our customer contracts, require us to change or terminate some portions of our business, require us to refund portions of our services fees, subject us to additional reporting requirements and oversight under a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of noncompliance with these laws, cause us to be disqualified from serving customers doing business with government payors, and have an adverse effect on our business. Our customers’ failure to comply with these laws and regulations in connection with our services could result in substantial liability (including, but not limited to, criminal liability), adversely affect demand for our Solution, and force us to expend significant capital, research and development, and other resources to address the failure.
Health Data Privacy Laws. There are numerous federal and state laws related to health information privacy. In particular, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and their implementing regulations, which we collectively refer to as HIPAA, include privacy standards that protect individual privacy by limiting the uses and disclosures of PHI and implementing data security standards that require covered entities to implement administrative, physical, and technological safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and security of PHI in electronic form. HIPAA also specifies formats that must be used in certain electronic transactions, such as admission and discharge messages. By processing and maintaining PHI on behalf of our covered entity customers, we are a HIPAA business associate and mandated by HIPAA to enter into written agreements with our covered entity clients – known as BAAs – that require us to safeguard PHI. BAAs typically include:
a description of our permitted uses of PHI;
a covenant not to disclose that information except as permitted under the BAA and to require that our subcontractors, if any, are subject to the substantially similar restrictions;
assurances that reasonable and appropriate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards are in place to prevent misuse of PHI;
an obligation to report to our customer any use or disclosure of PHI other than as provided for in the BAA;
a prohibition against our use or disclosure of PHI if a similar use or disclosure by our customer would violate the HIPAA standards;
the ability of our customers to terminate the underlying support agreement if we breach a material term of the BAA and are unable to cure the breach;
the requirement to return or destroy all PHI at the end of our services agreement; and
access by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to our internal practices, books, and records to validate that we are safeguarding PHI.
In addition, we are also required to maintain BAAs, which contain similar provisions, with our subcontractors that access or otherwise process PHI on our behalf.
We may not be able to adequately address the business risks created by HIPAA implementation. Furthermore, we are unable to predict what changes to HIPAA or other laws or regulations might be made in the future or how those changes could affect our business or the costs of compliance. For example, in 2018, the HHS Office for Civil Rights published a Request for Information in the Federal Register seeking comments on a number of areas in which HHS is considering making both minor and significant modifications to the HIPAA privacy and security standards to, among other things, improve care coordination. We are unable to predict what, if any, impact the changes in such standards will have on our compliance costs or our Solution.

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Finally, some of our analytics applications, for example one of our benchmarking applications, require that we obtain permissions consistent with HIPAA to provide “data aggregation services” and the right to create de-identified information and to use and disclose such de-identified information. We will also require large sets of de-identified information to enable us to continue to develop machine learning algorithms that enhance our Solution. If we are unable to secure these rights in customer BAAs or as a result of any future changes to HIPAA or other applicable laws, we may face limitations on the use of PHI and our ability to use de-identified information that could negatively affect the scope of our Solution as well as impair our ability to provide upgrades and enhancements to our Solution.
We outsource important aspects of the storage and transmission of customer and member information, and thus rely on third parties to manage functions that have material cyber‑security risks. We attempt to address these risks by requiring outsourcing subcontractors who handle customer information to sign BAAs contractually requiring those subcontractors to adequately safeguard PHI in a similar manner that applies to us and in some cases by requiring such outsourcing subcontractors to undergo third‑party security examinations as well as to protect the confidentiality of other sensitive customer information. In addition, we periodically hire third‑party security experts to assess and test our security measures. However, we cannot be assured that these contractual measures and other safeguards will adequately protect us from the risks associated with the storage and transmission of customer proprietary information and PHI.
In addition to the HIPAA privacy and security standards, most states have enacted patient confidentiality laws that protect against the disclosure of confidential medical and other personally identifiable information (PII) and many states have adopted or are considering new privacy laws, including legislation that would mandate new privacy safeguards, security standards, and data security breach notification requirements. Such state laws, if more stringent than HIPAA requirements, are not preempted by the federal requirements, and we are required to comply with them.
Failure by us to comply with any of the federal and state standards regarding patient privacy and/or privacy more generally may subject us to penalties, including significant civil monetary penalties and, in some circumstances, criminal penalties. In addition, such failure may injure our reputation and adversely affect our ability to retain customers and attract new customers.
Even an unsuccessful challenge by regulatory authorities of our activities could result in adverse publicity and could require a costly response from us.
Anti-Kickback and Anti-Bribery Laws. There are federal and state laws that prohibit payment for patient referrals, patient brokering, remuneration of patients, or billing based on referrals between individuals or entities that have various financial, ownership, or other business relationships with healthcare providers. In particular, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving anything of value, directly or indirectly, for the referral of patients covered by Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal healthcare programs or the leasing, purchasing, ordering, or arranging for or recommending the lease, purchase, or order of any item, good, facility, or service covered by these programs. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. Some enforcement activities focus on below or above market payments for federally reimbursable health care items or services as evidence of the intent to provide a kickback. Many states also have similar anti-kickback laws that are not necessarily limited to items or services for which payment is made by a federal healthcare program. In addition, the federal anti-referral law—the Stark Law—is very complex in its application, and prohibits physicians (and certain other healthcare professionals) from making a referral for a designated health service to a provider in which the referring healthcare professional (or spouse or any immediate family member) has a financial or ownership interest, unless an enumerated exception applies. The Stark Law also prohibits the billing for services rendered resulting from an impermissible referral. Many states also have similar anti-referral laws that are not necessarily limited to items or services for which payment is made by a federal healthcare program and may include patient disclosure requirements. Moreover, both federal and state laws prohibit bribery and similar behavior. Any determination by a state or federal regulatory agency that we or any of our customers, vendors, or partners violate or have violated any of these laws could subject us to significant civil or criminal penalties, require us to change or terminate some portions of our business, require us to refund portions of our services fees, subject us to additional reporting requirements and oversight under a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of noncompliance with these laws, cause us to be disqualified from serving customers doing business with government payors, and have an adverse effect on our business. Even an unsuccessful challenge by regulatory authorities of our activities could result in adverse publicity and could require a costly response from us.
Corporate Practice of Medicine Laws and Fee-Splitting Laws. Many states have laws prohibiting physicians from practicing medicine in partnership with non-physicians, such as business corporations. In some states, including New York, these take the form of laws or regulations prohibiting splitting of physician fees with non-physicians or others. Any determination by a state court or regulatory agency that our service contracts with our clients violate these laws could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, invalidate all or portions of some of those contracts, require us to change or

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terminate some portions of our business, require us to refund portions of our services fees, and have an adverse effect on our business. Even an unsuccessful challenge by regulatory authorities of our activities could result in adverse publicity and could require a costly response from us.
Medical professional regulation. The practice of most healthcare professions requires licensing under applicable state law. In addition, the laws in some states prohibit business entities from practicing medicine. We employ and contract with physicians who assist our customers with the customers’ care coordination, care management, population health management, and patient safety activities. We do not intend to provide medical care, treatment, or advice. However, any determination that we are acting in the capacity of a healthcare provider and acted improperly as a healthcare provider may result in additional compliance requirements, expense, and liability to us, and require us to change or terminate some portions of our business.
Medical Device Laws. The FDA may regulate medical or health-related software, including machine learning functionality and predictive algorithms, if such software falls within the definition of a “device” under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA). However, the FDA exercises enforcement discretion for certain low-risk software, as described in its guidance documents for Mobile Medical Applications, General Wellness: Policy for Low Risk Devices, and Medical Device Data Systems, Medical Image Storage Devices, and Medical Image Communications Devices. In addition, in December of 2016, President Obama signed into law the 21st Century Cures Act, which included exemptions for certain medical-related software, including software used for administrative support functions at a healthcare facility, software intended for maintaining or encouraging a healthy lifestyle, EHR software, software for transferring, storing, or displaying medical device data or in vitro diagnostic data, and certain clinical decision support software. The FDA has also issued draft guidance documents to clarify how it intends to interpret and apply the new exemptions under the 21st Century Cures Act. Although we believe that our software products are currently not subject to active FDA regulation, we continue to follow the FDA’s developments in this area. There is a risk that the FDA could disagree with our determination or that the FDA could develop new final guidance documents that would subject our Solution to active FDA oversight. If the FDA determines that any of our current or future analytics applications are regulated as medical devices, we would become subject to various requirements under the FDCA and the FDA’s implementing regulations. Depending on the functionality and FDA classification of our analytics applications, we may be required to:
register and list our analytics applications with the FDA;
notify the FDA and demonstrate substantial equivalence to other products on the market before marketing our analytics applications;
submit a de novo request to the FDA to down-classify our analytics applications prior to marketing; or
obtain FDA approval by demonstrating safety and effectiveness before marketing our analytics applications.
The FDA can impose extensive requirements governing pre- and post-market conditions, such as service investigation and others relating to approval, labeling, and manufacturing. In addition, the FDA can impose extensive requirements governing software development controls and quality assurance processes.
These laws and regulations may change rapidly, and it is frequently unclear how they apply to our business. Any failure of our products or services to comply with these laws and regulations could result in substantial civil or criminal liability and could, among other things, adversely affect demand for our services, force us to expend significant capital, research and development, and other resources to address the failure, invalidate all or portions of some of our contracts with our customers, require us to change or terminate some portions of our business, require us to refund portions of our revenue, cause us to be disqualified from serving customers doing business with government payors, and give our customers the right to terminate our contracts with them, any one of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Additionally, the introduction of new services may require us to comply with additional, yet undetermined, laws and regulations.
The security measures that we and our third-party vendors and subcontractors have in place to ensure compliance with privacy and data protection laws may not protect our facilities and systems from security breaches, acts of vandalism or theft, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and human errors, or other similar events. Under the HITECH Act, as a business associate, we may also be liable for privacy and security breaches and failures of our subcontractors. Even though we provide for appropriate protections through our agreements with our subcontractors, we still have limited control over their actions and practices. A breach of privacy or security of individually identifiable health information by a subcontractor may result in an enforcement action, including criminal and civil liability, against us. We are not able to predict the extent of the impact such incidents may have on our business.

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Our failure to comply may result in criminal and civil liability because the potential for enforcement action against business associates is now greater. Enforcement actions against us could be costly and could interrupt regular operations, which may adversely affect our business. While we have not received any notices of violation of the applicable privacy and data protection laws and believe we are in compliance with such laws, there can be no assurance that we will not receive such notices in the future.
There is ongoing concern from privacy advocates, regulators, and others regarding data protection and privacy issues, and the number of jurisdictions with data protection and privacy laws has been increasing. Also, there are ongoing public policy discussions regarding whether the standards for deidentified, anonymous, or pseudonymized health information are sufficient, and the risk of re-identification sufficiently small, to adequately protect patient privacy. We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, and information security in the United States, including the California Consumer Privacy Act, which went into effect January 1, 2020, and we cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. Future laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations, and changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations could impair our or our customers’ ability to collect, use, or disclose information relating to consumers, which could decrease demand for our platform, increase our costs, and impair our ability to maintain and grow our customer base and increase our revenue. New laws, amendments to or re-interpretations of existing laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations, and other obligations may require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. In view of new or modified federal, state, or foreign laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations, and other legal obligations, or any changes in their interpretation, we may find it necessary or desirable to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or to expend significant resources to modify our software or platform and otherwise adapt to these changes.
Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with federal or state laws or regulations, industry standards, or other legal obligations, or any actual or suspected security incident, whether or not resulting in unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release, or transfer of personally identifiable information or other data, may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines, and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. We may be unable to make such changes and modifications in a commercially reasonable manner or at all, and our ability to develop new products and features could be limited. Any of these developments could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our platform.
Further, on February 11, 2019, ONC and CMS proposed complementary new rules to support access, exchange, and use of EHI. The proposed rules are intended to clarify provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act regarding interoperability and “information blocking,” and, if adopted, will create significant new requirements for health care industry participants. The proposed ONC rule, if adopted, would require certain electronic health record technology to incorporate standardized application programming interfaces (APIs) to allow individuals to securely and easily access structured EHI using smartphone applications. The ONC rule would also implement provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act requiring that patients be provided with electronic access to all of their EHI (structured and/or unstructured) at no cost. Finally, the proposed ONC rule would also implement the information blocking provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act, and proposes seven “reasonable and necessary activities” that will not be considered information blocking as long as specific conditions are met.
The CMS proposed rule focuses on health plans, payors, and health care providers and proposes measures to enable patients to move from health plan to health plan, provider to provider, and have both their clinical and administrative information travel with them.
It is unclear whether or when these rules, and others released simultaneously, will be adopted, in whole or in part. If adopted, the rules may benefit us in that certain EHR vendors will no longer be permitted to interfere with our attempts at integration, but the rules may also make it easier for other similar companies to enter the market, creating increased competition, and reducing our market share. It is unclear at this time what the costs of compliance with the proposed rules, if adopted, would be, and what additional risks there may be to our business.
Due to the particular nature of certain services we provide or the manner in which we provide them, we may be subject to additional government regulation and foreign government regulation.
While our Solution is primarily subject to government regulations pertaining to healthcare, certain aspects of our Solution may require us to comply with regulatory schema from other areas. Examples of such regulatory schema include:


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Antitrust Laws. Our national cloud-based network allows us access to cost and pricing data for a large number of providers in most regional markets, as well as to the contracted rates for third-party payors. To the extent that our Solution enables providers to compare their cost and pricing data with those of their competitors, those providers could collude to increase the pricing for their services, to reduce the compensation they pay their employees, or to collectively negotiate agreements with third parties. Similarly, if payors are able to compare their contracted rates of payment to providers, those payors may seek to reduce the amounts they might otherwise pay. Such actions may be deemed to be anti-competitive and a violation of federal antitrust laws. To the extent that we are deemed to have enabled such activities, we could be subject to fines and penalties imposed by the U.S. Department of Justice or the FTC and be required to curtail or terminate the services that permitted such collusion.
Consumer Protection Regulation. Federal and state government bodies and agencies have adopted or are considering adopting laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, and dissemination of data, and the presentation of website or other electronic content, which may require compliance with certain standards for notice, choice, security, and access. California adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which went into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA has been characterized as the first “GDPR-like” privacy statute to be enacted in the United States because it mirrors a number of the key provisions of the GDPR (discussed below). The CCPA establishes a new privacy framework for covered businesses by creating an expanded definition of personal information, establishing new data privacy rights for consumers in the state of California, imposing special rules on the collection of consumer data from minors, and creating a new and potentially severe statutory damages framework for violations of the CCPA and for businesses that fail to implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. If we fail to comply with any of these privacy laws that apply to us, and are subject to the aforementioned penalties, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and Foreign Anti-Bribery Laws. The FCPA makes it illegal for U.S. persons, including U.S. companies, and their subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, and agents, to promise, authorize or make any corrupt payment, or otherwise provide anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, any foreign political party or party official, or candidate for foreign political office to obtain or retain business. Violations of the FCPA can also result in violations of other U.S. laws, including anti-money laundering, mail and wire fraud, and conspiracy laws. There are severe penalties for violating the FCPA. In addition, the Company may also be subject to other non-U.S. anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws, such as the U.K. Bribery Act 2010. If our employees, contractors, vendors, or partners fail to comply with the FCPA and/or foreign anti-bribery laws, we may be subject to penalties or sanctions, and our ability to develop new prospects and retain existing customers could be adversely affected.
Economic Sanctions and Export Controls. Economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) prohibit or restrict transactions to or from, and dealings with specified countries and territories, their governments, and in certain circumstances, with individuals and entities that are specially designated nationals of those countries, and other sanctioned persons, including narcotics traffickers and terrorists or terrorist organizations. As federal, state and foreign legislative regulatory scrutiny and enforcement actions in these areas increase, we expect our costs to comply with these requirements will increase as well. Failure to comply with any of these requirements could result in the limitation, suspension or termination of our services, imposition of significant civil and criminal penalties, including fines, and/or the seizure and/or forfeiture of our assets. Further, our Solution incorporates encryption technology. This encryption technology may be exported from the United States only with the required export authorizations, including by a license, a license exception or other appropriate government authorizations. Such solutions may also be subject to certain regulatory reporting requirements. Various countries also regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our customers’ ability to import our Solution into those countries. Governmental regulation of encryption technology and of exports and imports of encryption products, or our failure to obtain required approval for our Solution, when applicable, could harm our international sales and adversely affect our revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the provision of our Solution, including with respect to new applications, may delay the introduction of our Solution in various markets or, in some cases, prevent the provision of our Solution to some countries altogether.
GDPR and Foreign Data Privacy Protection Laws - In addition, several foreign governments have regulations dealing with the collection and use of personal information obtained from their residents. For example, in the European Union, (EU), the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect on May 25, 2018. If we or our vendors fail to comply with the applicable EU privacy laws, we could be subject to government enforcement actions and significant penalties against us. GDPR introduced new data protection requirements in the EU relating to the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, the information provided to the individuals, the documentation we must retain, the security and confidentiality of the personal data, data breach notification and the use of third-party processors in connection

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with the processing of personal data. GDPR has increased our responsibility and potential liability in relation to personal data that we process, and we may be required to put in place mechanisms to ensure compliance with GDPR. Data protection authorities of the different EU Member States may interpret GDPR differently, and guidance on implementation and compliance practices are often updated or otherwise revised, which adds to the complexity of processing personal data in the EU. Any failure by us to comply with GDPR could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others, which may subject us to significant penalties and negative publicity, require us to change our business practices, and increase our costs and severely disrupt our business. Similarly, Canada’s Personal Information and Protection of Electronic Documents Act provides Canadian residents with privacy protections in regard to transactions with businesses and organizations in the private sector and sets out ground rules for how private-sector organizations may collect, use, and disclose personal information in the course of commercial activities. Foreign governments may attempt to apply such laws extraterritorially or through treaties or other arrangements with U.S. governmental entities. Other jurisdictions besides the EU and Canada are similarly introducing or enhancing laws and regulations relating to privacy and data security, which enhances risks relating to compliance with such laws. Furthermore, as we enter into business arrangements in countries outside of the United States, we will need to be prepared to comply with applicable local privacy laws. The GDPR and other changes in laws or regulations associated with the enhanced protection of certain types of personal data, such as healthcare data or other sensitive information, could greatly increase our cost of providing our products and services or even prevent us from offering certain services in jurisdictions that we operate.
Regulatory Certification. We must obtain certification from governmental agencies, such as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to sell certain of our analytics applications and services in the United States. We cannot be certain that our Solution will continue to meet these standards. The failure to comply with these certification requirements could result in the loss of certification, which could restrict our Solution offerings and cause us to lose customers.
We cannot be certain that the privacy policies and other statements regarding our practices will be found sufficient to protect us from liability or adverse publicity relating to the privacy and security of personal information. Whether and how existing local and international privacy and data protection laws in various jurisdictions apply to the Internet and other online technologies is still uncertain and may take years to resolve. Current and future privacy laws and regulations, if drafted or interpreted broadly, could be deemed to apply to the technology we use and could restrict our information collection methods or decrease the amount and utility of the information that we would be permitted to collect. The costs of compliance with, and the other burdens imposed by, these and other laws or regulatory actions may prevent us from selling our Solution, or increase the costs of doing so, and may affect our ability to invest in or jointly develop our analytics applications. In addition, a determination by a court or government agency that any of our practices, or those of our agents, do not meet these standards could result in civil and/or criminal liability, result in adverse publicity, and adversely affect our business.
The healthcare regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving.
Healthcare laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and may change significantly in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and ACA was adopted, which is a healthcare reform measure that provides healthcare insurance for approximately 30 million more Americans. The ACA includes a variety of healthcare reform provisions and requirements that substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, which may significantly impact our industry and our business. Many of the provisions of the ACA phase in over the course of the next several years, and we may be unable to predict accurately what effect the ACA or other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, including amendments to the ACA, will have on our business. On December 14, 2018, a U.S. District Court Judge in the Northern District of Texas, ruled that the individual mandate is a critical and inseverable feature of the ACA, and therefore, because it was repealed as part of the Tax Act, the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. On December 18, 2019, the Fifth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals held that the individual mandate is unconstitutional, and remanded the case to the lower court to reconsider its earlier invalidation of the full ACA. Pending review, the ACA remains in effect, but it is unclear at this time what effect the latest ruling will have on the status of the ACA.
Our business could be adversely impacted by changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in access to the Internet generally.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the Internet as a primary medium for communication, business applications, and commerce. Federal or state government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the Internet as a commercial medium. Legislators, regulators, or government bodies or agencies may also make legal or regulatory changes or interpret or apply existing laws or regulations that relate to the use of the Internet in new and materially different ways. Changes in these laws, regulations or interpretations could require us to modify our platform in order to comply with these changes, to incur substantial additional costs or divert resources that could otherwise be deployed to grow our business, or expose us to unanticipated civil or criminal liability, among other things.

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In addition, government agencies and private organizations have imposed, and may in the future impose, additional taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the Internet or commerce conducted via the Internet. Internet access is frequently provided by companies that have significant market power and could take actions that degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of our customers’ use of our platform, which could negatively impact our business. Net neutrality rules, which were designed to ensure that all online content is treated the same by Internet service providers and other companies that provide broadband services were repealed by the Federal Communications Commission effective June 2018. The repeal of the net neutrality rules could force us to incur greater operating expenses or our customers’ use of our platform could be adversely affected, either of which could harm our business and results of operations.
These developments could limit the growth of Internet-related commerce or communications generally or result in reductions in the demand for Internet-based platforms and services such as ours, increased costs to us or the disruption of our business. In addition, as the Internet continues to experience growth in the numbers of users, frequency of use and amount of data transmitted, the use of the Internet as a business tool could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility, and quality of service. The performance of the Internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been adversely affected by “viruses,” “worms,” and similar malicious programs and the Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the Internet generally, or our platform specifically, is adversely affected by these or other issues, we could be forced to incur substantial costs, demand for our platform could decline, and our results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
We have a limited operating history in an evolving industry which makes it difficult to evaluate our current business future prospects and increases the risk of your investment.
We launched operations in 2008 and we acquired Medicity in June 2018. Our limited operating history, in particular with respect to the Medicity business, makes it difficult to effectively assess or forecast our future prospects. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and difficulties we encounter or may encounter. These risks and difficulties include our ability to cost-effectively acquire new customers and retain existing customers, maintain the quality of our technology infrastructure that can efficiently and reliably handle the requirements of our customers and the deployment of new features and solutions and successfully compete with other companies that are currently in, or may enter, the healthcare solution space. Additional risks include our ability to effectively manage growth, responsibly use the data that customers share with us, process, store, protect, and use personal data in compliance with governmental regulation, contractual obligations, and other legal obligations related to privacy and security and avoid interruptions or disruptions in our service or slower than expected load times for our platform. If we fail to address the risks and difficulties that we face, including those associated with the challenges listed above, our business and our results of operations will be adversely affected.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you may lose all or part of your investments.
The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:
overall performance of the equity markets and/or publicly-listed technology companies;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our net revenue or other operating metrics;
changes in the financial projections we provide to the public or our failure to meet these projections;
failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet the estimates or the expectations of investors;
the economy as a whole and market conditions in our industry;
rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

44


new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
lawsuits threatened or filed against us;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events; and
the expiration of contractual lock-up or market standoff agreements.
In addition, extreme price and volume fluctuations in the stock markets have affected and continue to affect many technology companies’ stock prices. Often, their stock prices have fluctuated in ways unrelated or disproportionate to the companies’ operating performance. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and harm our business.
Moreover, because of these fluctuations, comparing our results of operations on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. You should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our net revenue or results of operations fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could occur even when we have met any previously publicly stated net revenue or earnings forecasts that we may provide.
We are an emerging growth company, and any decision on our part to comply only with certain reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, and, for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies,” including:
not being required to have our independent registered public accounting firm attest to our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act;
reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and annual report on Form 10-K; and
exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years following the completion of this offering. Our status as an emerging growth company will end as soon as any of the following takes place:
the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue;
the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates;
the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or
the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering.
We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on the exemptions afforded emerging growth companies. If some investors find our common stock less attractive because we rely on any of these exemptions, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and the market price of our common stock may be more volatile.
Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this accommodation allowing for delayed adoption of new or revised accounting standards, and therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

45


If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, the price of our common stock and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on our company. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our common stock could be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us on a regular basis, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our common stock price and trading volume to decline.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public markets, such as when our lock-up restrictions are released, or the perception that sales of common stock might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock into the public market, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, and principal stockholders, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. As of December 31, 2019, we had a total of 36,731,632 legally issued and outstanding shares of common stock. This assumes no exercise of outstanding options or warrants.
In addition, as of December 31, 2019, we had 7,847,716 options outstanding that, if fully exercised, would result in the issuance of shares of common stock. All of the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will be registered for public resale under the Securities Act. Accordingly, these shares will be able to be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to existing lock-up or market standoff agreements, volume limitations under Rule 144 for our executive officers and directors, and applicable vesting requirements.
Our management has broad discretion in the use of proceeds from our IPO and our use may not produce a positive rate of return.
The principal purposes of our IPO were to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our stock and thereby enable access to the public equity markets by our employees and stockholders, obtain additional capital, and strengthen our position in the healthcare data analytics applications and services market. We cannot specify with certainty our plans for the use of the net proceeds we received from this offering. However, we intend to use the net proceeds we received from our IPO for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Our management has broad discretion over the specific use of the net proceeds we received in our IPO and might not be able to obtain a significant return, if any, on investment of these net proceeds. Investors will need to rely upon the judgment of our management with respect to the use of proceeds. If we do not use the net proceeds that we received in our IPO effectively, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
Our issuance of additional capital stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, our stock incentive plans or otherwise will dilute all other stockholders.
We expect to issue additional capital stock in the future that will result in dilution to all other stockholders. We expect to grant equity awards to employees, directors, and consultants under our stock incentive plans. We may also raise capital through equity financings in the future. As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in complementary companies, products, or technologies and issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition or investment, such as our issuance of equity securities in connection with our acquisition of Able Health, Inc. in February 2020. Any such issuances of additional capital stock may cause stockholders to experience significant dilution of their ownership interests and the per-share value of our common stock to decline.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain executive management and qualified board members.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), the listing standards of Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems, and resources. For example, the Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. As a result of the complexity involved in complying with the rules and regulations applicable to public companies, our management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

46


Although we have already hired additional employees to assist us in complying with these requirements, we may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants, which will increase our operating expenses.
In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs, and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations, and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest substantial resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from business operations to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.
We also expect that being a public company and these new rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.
As a result of disclosure of information in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition is more visible, which may result in an increased risk of threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and results of operations could be harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
The individuals who now constitute our senior management team have limited experience managing a publicly-traded company and limited experience complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our senior management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to a public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, the ability of common stockholders to achieve a return on investment will depend on appreciation, if any, in the price of our common stock.
You should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. We have never declared or paid any dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain any earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of our debt facilities with OrbiMed and SVB contain, and any future credit facility or financing we obtain may contain, terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. As a result, common stockholders may only receive a return on investment if the market price of our common stock increases.
Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current board of directors, and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, include provisions that:
provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms;
permit the board of directors to establish the number of directors and fill any vacancies and newly-created directorships;
require super-majority voting to amend some provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws;
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could use to implement a stockholder rights plan;
provide that only a majority of our board of directors will be authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;

47


prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which requires all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;
provide that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter, or repeal our bylaws; and
advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at annual stockholder meetings.
Moreover, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company.
Section 203 imposes certain restrictions on mergers, business combinations, and other transactions between us and holders of 15% or more of our common stock.
Our amended and restated bylaws designate a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law:
any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;
any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws; or
any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
This exclusive forum provision will not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Nothing in our amended and restated bylaws precludes stockholders that assert claims under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act from bringing such claims in state or federal court, subject to applicable law. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision which will be contained in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We could be subject to securities class action litigation.
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because technology and healthcare technology companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our principal executive offices are located in Salt Lake City, Utah where we occupy facilities totaling approximately 60,358 square feet under a lease that expires on December 31, 2020. We use this facility for administration, sales and marketing, technology and development and professional services. We also lease offices elsewhere in the United States for sales, professional services, and other personnel, including offices in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Alpharetta, Georgia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Cambridge, Massachusetts.

48


We intend to procure additional space as we add team members and expand geographically. We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future, and that, should it be needed, suitable additional space will be available to accommodate any such expansion of our operations.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are, and from time to time may be, party to litigation and subject to claims incident to the ordinary course of business. As our growth continues, we may become party to an increasing number of litigation matters and claims. The outcome of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, and the resolution of these matters could materially affect our future results of operations, cash flows or financial position. We are not presently party to any legal proceedings that in the opinion of management, if determined to adversely affect us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information for Our Common Stock
Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “HCAT” on July 25, 2019. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
Holders of Record
As of December 31, 2019, there were 143 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
Dividend Policy
We do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The information required by this item with respect to our equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference in our proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days of the year ended December 31, 2019.
Stock Performance Graph
The following performance graph and related information is "furnished" and shall not be deemed to be "soliciting material" or "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act and Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any filing of Health Catalyst, Inc. under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference in such filing.
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total return to stockholders on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (the S&P 500) and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index between July 25, 2019 (the date our common stock commenced trading) through December 31, 2019. All values assume a $100 initial investment at market close on July 25, 2019. The initial public offering price of our common stock, which had a closing stock price of $39.17 on July 25, 2019, was $26.00 per share. Data for the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index assume reinvestment of dividends. The comparisons are based on historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, the future performance of our common stock.

49


https://cdn.kscope.io/9cfe04fdce09c2be2549685f8a9faa16-cumulativereturn.jpg
Company/Index
 
Jul. 25, 2019(1)
 
July 31, 2019
 
Aug. 31, 2019
 
Sept. 30, 2019
 
Oct. 31, 2019
 
Nov. 30, 2019
 
Dec. 31, 2019
Health Catalyst, Inc.
 
100

 
113

 
102

 
81

 
82

 
101

 
89

S&P 500
 
100

 
99

 
97

 
99

 
101

 
105

 
108

S&P 500 Information Technology
 
100

 
98

 
97

 
98

 
102

 
107

 
112

__________________
(1)
Base period
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we did not issue or sell any unregistered securities not previously disclosed in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or in a Current Report on Form 8-K.

Use of Proceeds
On July 29, 2019, we closed our IPO in which we issued and sold 8,050,000 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $26.00 per share, including shares sold in connection with the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares. The offer and sale of the shares in our IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-232400), which was declared effective by the SEC on July 24, 2019. We raised $194.6 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $14.7 million and before deducting offering costs of $4.6 million.
There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on July 25, 2019 pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) under the Securities Act.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.

50


Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data
You should read the selected consolidated financial data below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements, related notes, and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected consolidated financial data in this section are not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and are qualified in their entirety by the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 has been derived from our audited financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
(in thousands, except per share data)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Technology
$
83,975

 
$
57,224

 
$
31,693

Professional services
70,966

 
55,350

 
41,388

Total revenue
154,941

 
112,574

 
73,081

Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization:
 
 
 
 
 
Technology(1)(2)
27,797

 
19,429

 
11,610

Professional services(1)(2)(3)
47,548

 
40,423

 
32,032

Total cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization
75,345

 
59,852

 
43,642

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing(1)(2)(3)
47,284

 
44,123

 
25,920

Research and development(1)(2)(3)
46,252

 
38,592

 
28,470

General and administrative(1)(2)(3)
31,713

 
22,690

 
14,697

Depreciation and amortization
9,212

 
7,412

 
5,892

Total operating expenses
134,461

 
112,817

 
74,979

Loss from operations
(54,865
)
 
(60,095
)
 
(45,540
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(1,670
)
 

 

Interest and other expense, net
(3,419
)
 
(2,024
)
 
(1,469
)
Loss before income taxes
(59,954
)
 
(62,119
)
 
(47,009
)
Income tax provision (benefit)
142

 
(135
)
 
26

Net loss
$
(60,096
)
 
$
(61,984
)
 
$
(47,035
)
Less: accretion of redeemable convertible preferred stock
180,826

 
52,037

 
11,745

Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$
(240,922
)
 
$
(114,021
)
 
$
(58,780
)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
$
(12.86
)
 
$
(23.76
)
 
$
(12.13
)
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used in calculating net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
18,741

 
4,798

 
4,847

__________________
(1)
Includes stock-based compensation expense, as follows:

51


 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Stock-Based Compensation Expense:
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization:
 
 
 
 
 
Technology
$
200

 
$
78

 
$
65

Professional services
968

 
480

 
514

Sales and marketing expenses
3,811

 
1,514

 
1,192

Research and development expenses
4,841

 
787

 
707

General and administrative expenses
8,024

 
1,339

 
1,763

Total
$
17,844

 
$
4,198

 
$
4,241

(2)Includes tender offer payments deemed compensation expense, as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Tender Offer Payments Deemed Compensation Expense:
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization:
 
 
 
 
 
Technology
$

 
$
28

 
$

Professional services

 
284

 

Sales and marketing expenses

 
3,967

 

Research and development expenses

 
906

 

General and administrative expenses

 
3,133

 

Total
$

 
$
8,318

 
$

(3)Includes post-acquisition restructuring costs, as follows:
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Post-Acquisition Restructuring Costs:
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization:
 
 
 
 
 
Technology
$

 
$

 
$

Professional services
108

 
337

 

Sales and marketing expenses
306

 
780

 

Research and development expenses
32

 
513

 

General and administrative expenses

 
484

 

Total
$
446

 
$
2,114

 
$


 
As of December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
18,032

 
$
28,431

 
$
22,978

Short-term investments
210,245

 
4,761

 
28,484

Working capital(1)
246,675

 
49,807

 
51,337

Total assets
302,360

 
110,975

 
110,268

Deferred revenue, current and non-current
32,112

 
32,035

 
10,718

Long-term debt, net of current portion
48,200

 
18,814

 
9,618

Redeemable convertible preferred stock

 
409,845

 
321,569

Accumulated deficit
(610,514
)
 
(374,772
)
 
(259,468
)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
200,644

 
(374,768
)
 
(259,475
)

52


___________________
(1)
Working capital is calculated as current assets less current liabilities, excluding current deferred revenue. See our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details regarding our current assets, current liabilities, and deferred revenue.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Non-GAAP Financial Data:
(in thousands, except percentages)
Adjusted Technology Gross Profit(1)
$
56,378

 
$
37,901

 
$
20,148

Adjusted Technology Gross Margin(1)
67
%
 
66
%
 
64
%
Adjusted Professional Services Gross Profit(1)
$
24,494

 
$
16,028

 
$
9,870

Adjusted Professional Services Gross Margin(1)
35
%
 
29
%
 
24
%
Total Adjusted Gross Profit(1)
$
80,872

 
$
53,929

 
$
30,018

Total Adjusted Gross Margin(1)
52
%
 
48
%
 
41
%
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
$
(27,363
)
 
$
(38,053
)
 
$
(35,407
)
___________________.
(1)
These measures are not calculated in accordance with GAAP. See “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for more information about these financial measures, including the limitations of such measures and a reconciliation of each measure to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP.
Other Key Metrics
 
As of December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
DOS Subscription Customers(1)
65

 
50

 
34

___________________
(1)
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Other Key Metrics” for more information about this metric.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Dollar-based Retention Rate(1)
109
%
 
107
%
 
108
%
___________________
(1)
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Other Key Metrics” for more information about this metric.
Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe the following non-GAAP measures are useful in evaluating our operating performance. We use the following non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations, as a component in determining employee bonus compensation, and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance. However, non-GAAP financial information is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP. In addition, other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate similarly-titled non-GAAP measures differently or may use other measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of our non-GAAP financial measures as tools for comparison. A reconciliation is provided below for each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin
Adjusted Gross Profit is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as revenue less cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization and excluding stock-based compensation, tender offer payments deemed compensation, and post-acquisition restructuring costs. We define Adjusted Gross Margin as our Adjusted Gross Profit divided by our revenue. Adjusted Technology Gross Profit and Adjusted Professional Services Gross Profit are the portions of Adjusted Gross Profit related to technology and professional services, respectively. We believe these non-GAAP financial measures are useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as these metrics generally eliminate the effects of certain items that may vary from company to company for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.

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The following is a reconciliation of revenue to our Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin in total and for technology and professional services for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2019
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
Technology
 
Professional
Services
 
Total
Revenue
$
83,975

 
$
70,966

 
$
154,941

Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization
(27,797
)
 
(47,548
)
 
(75,345
)
Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization
56,178

 
23,418

 
79,596

Add:
 
 
 
 
 
Stock-based compensation
200

 
968

 
1,168

Post-acquisition restructuring costs(2)
$

 
$
108

 
$
108

Adjusted Gross Profit
$
56,378

 
$
24,494

 
$
80,872

Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization
67
%
 
33
%
 
51
%
Adjusted Gross Margin
67
%
 
35
%
 
52
%
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
Technology
 
Professional
Services
 
Total
Revenue
$
57,224

 
$
55,350

 
$
112,574

Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization
(19,429
)
 
(40,423
)
 
(59,852
)
Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization
37,795

 
14,927

 
52,722

Add:
 
 
 
 
 
Stock-based compensation
78

 
480

 
558

Tender offer payments deemed compensation(1)
28

 
284

 
312

Post-acquisition restructuring costs(2)

 
337

 
337

Adjusted Gross Profit
$
37,901

 
$
16,028

 
$
53,929

Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization
66
%
 
27
%
 
47
%
Adjusted Gross Margin
66
%
 
29
%
 
48
%
 
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
Technology
 
Professional
Services
 
Total
Revenue
$
31,693

 
$
41,388

 
$
73,081

Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization
(11,610
)
 
(32,032
)
 
(43,642
)
Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization
20,083

 
9,356

 
29,439

Add:
 
 
 
 
 
Stock-based compensation
65

 
514

 
579

Adjusted Gross Profit
$
20,148

 
$
9,870

 
$
30,018

Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization
63
%
 
23
%
 
40
%
Adjusted Gross Margin
64
%
 
24
%
 
41
%
__________________
(1)
Tender offer payments deemed compensation relate to employee compensation from repurchases of common stock at a price in excess of its estimated fair value. For additional details refer to Note 12 in the consolidated financial statements.
(2)
Post-acquisition restructuring costs related to severance charges following the acquisition of Medicity.
Adjusted Technology Gross Margin increased from 66% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 67% for the year ended December 31, 2019. We expect Adjusted Technology Gross Margin to fluctuate and potentially decline in the near term, primarily due to additional costs associated with transitioning customers from on-premise and our managed data centers to third-party hosted data centers with Microsoft Azure.

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Adjusted Professional Services Gross Margin increased from 29% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 35% for the year ended December 31, 2019, due primarily to utilization efficiencies as well as a year-over-year increase in higher gross margin services. Our professional services are comprised of data and analytics services, domain expertise services, outsourcing services, and implementation services. While the majority of our professional services revenue is generated from data and analytic services and domain expertise services, the delivery mix between these services in a given quarter can lead to fluctuations in our Adjusted Professional Services Gross Margin. Adjusted Professional Services Gross Margin may fluctuate and will likely decline in the near term due to changes in the mix of services we provide and additional compensation costs related to an increase in headcount.
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as net loss adjusted for interest and other expense, net, loss on extinguishment of debt, income tax provision (benefit), depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, tender offer payments deemed compensation, and post-acquisition restructuring costs. We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as this metric generally eliminates the effects of certain items that may vary from company to company for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.
The following is a reconciliation of our net loss to Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
(in thousands)
Net loss
$
(60,096
)
 
$
(61,984
)
 
$
(47,035
)
Add:
 
 
 
 
 
Interest and other expense, net
3,419

 
2,024

 
1,469

Loss on extinguishment of debt
1,670

 

 

Income tax provision (benefit)
142

 
(135
)
 
26

Depreciation and amortization
9,212

 
7,412

 
5,892

Stock-based compensation
17,844

 
4,198

 
4,241

Tender offer payments deemed compensation(1)

 
8,318

 

Post-acquisition restructuring costs(2)
446

 
2,114

 

Adjusted EBITDA
$
(27,363
)
 
$
(38,053
)
 
$
(35,407
)
__________________
(1)
Tender offer payments deemed compensation relate to employee compensation from repurchases of common stock at a price in excess of its estimated fair value. For additional details refer to Note 12 in the consolidated financial statements.
(2)
Post-acquisition restructuring costs relate to severance charges following the acquisition of Medicity.
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those forward-looking statements below. Factors that could cause or contribute to those differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 is included under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) on July 25, 2019.
Overview
We are a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations. Our Solution comprises a cloud-based data platform, analytics software, and professional services expertise. Our customers, which are primarily healthcare providers, use our Solution to manage their data, derive analytical insights to operate their organizations, and produce measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. We envision a future where all healthcare decisions are data informed.

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Health Catalyst was founded in 2008 by healthcare analytics industry pioneers. Our founders and team developed the initial version of our Solution, consisting of an early version of our data platform, select analytics accelerators, and professional services expertise. From the beginning, our Solution has been focused on enabling our mission: to be the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement.
We currently employ more than 900 team members. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, our total revenue was $154.9 million, $112.6 million, and $73.1 million, respectively.
For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we incurred net losses of $60.1 million, $62.0 million, and $47.0 million, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, our Adjusted EBITDA was $(27.4) million, $(38.1) million, and $(35.4) million, respectively. See “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for more information about this financial measure, including the limitations of such measure and a reconciliation to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP. See “Key Factors Affecting Our Performance” for more information about important opportunities and challenges related to our business.
On July 29, 2019, we closed our IPO in which we issued and sold 8,050,000 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $26.00 per share for aggregate net proceeds of $190.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us.
Our Business Model
We offer our Solution to a variety of healthcare organizations, primarily in the United States, including academic medical centers, integrated delivery networks, community hospitals, large physician practices, ACOs, health information exchanges, health insurers, and other risk-bearing entities. We categorize our customer count into two primary categories: DOS Subscription Customers and Other Customers. DOS Subscription Customers are defined as customers who access our DOS platform via a technology subscription contract. Other Customers generally include DOS non-subscription customers and Medicity interoperability customers. As of December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we had 65, 50, and 34 DOS Subscription Customers with active subscriptions, respectively. As of December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we had 65, 76, and 12 active Other Customers, respectively. The significant increase in Other Customers from 2017 to 2018 was primarily due to our acquisition of Medicity on June 29, 2018.
We derive substantially all of our revenue through subscriptions for use of our technology and professional services on a recurring basis. In 2019, greater than 90% of our total revenue was recurring in nature. Customers pay for our technology primarily on a subscription basis for our entire technology suite or for pieces of our technology (e.g., DOS-only). We generally provide access to our technology and deliver professional services to customers on a recurring basis, with our technology invoiced upfront annually or quarterly and our professional services invoiced monthly. Most of our technology and professional services contracts have up to a three-year term, of which the vast majority are terminable after one year upon 90 days' notice. As we increase the use cases we address at a given customer, we have the opportunity to upsell incremental technology and services. We have demonstrated an ability to upsell technology and services to our customer base over time as evidenced by a Dollar-based Retention Rate of 109% for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The primary costs incurred to deliver our technology are hosting fees and headcount-related costs associated with our cloud services and support teams. Hosting fees are related to providing our technology through a cloud-based environment hosted primarily by Microsoft Azure. However, we also operate a private data center where certain customers are hosted and have deployed DOS on-premise to a small number of customers. Over time, we plan to migrate our on-premise and private data center customers to Azure-hosted environments, increasin